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» LymeNet Flash » Questions and Discussion » Medical Questions » Raintree A-P info...

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Author Topic: Raintree A-P info...
sparkle7
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I'm going to break down the ingredients in this product & post it here for people's reference - since the parasite issue is a hot topic now.

(PS - I don't sell this product or make money recommending it. I'm just looking at different ways to control parasites & I'm working with this one now.)

Mostly, people are taking the drugs or the western herbs - so, I thought it might be useful. It might take me a day or so to compile all the info.

List of ingredients in Raintree A-P:

A proprietary blend of amargo, simarouba, boldo, fedegoso, carqueja, quinine, erva tosto, epazote, anamu, and graviola.

I'm mainly posting this because I was curious about the ingredients of this formula & I wanted to present some alternatives to the drugs or the usual formulas I see posted here.

[ 08-03-2012, 11:13 PM: Message edited by: sparkle7 ]

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sparkle7
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amargo -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/amargo.htm

excerpts-

Third-Party Published Research on Amargo

All available third-party research on amargo be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on amargo is shown below:

Antimalarial Actions:
Mishra, K., et al. "Plasmodium falciparum: In vitro interaction of quassin and neo-quassin with artesunate, a hemisuccinate derivative of artemisinin." Exp. Parasitol. 2009 Dec 29.
Cachet, N., et al. "Antimalarial activity of simalikalactone E, a new quassinoid from Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae)." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2009 Oct; 53(10): 4393-8.
Houel, E., et al. "Quassinoid constituents of Quassia amara L. leaf herbal tea. Impact on its antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Oct; 126(1): 114-8.
Bertani, S., et al. "Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) leaf tea: Effect of the growing stage and desiccation status on the antimalarial activity of a traditional preparation." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 20; 111(1):40-2.
Bertani, S., et al. "Simalikalactone D is responsible for the antimalarial properties of an amazonian traditional remedy made with Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 3;108(1):155-7.
Vigneron, M., et al. Antimalarial remedies in French Guiana: a knowledge attitudes and practices study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr; 98(3): 351-60.
Bertani, S., et al. Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr; 98(1-2): 45-54.
Ajaiyeoba, E. O., et al. In vivo antimalarial activities of Quassia amara and Quassia undulata plant extracts in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(3): 32125.
ONeill, M. J., et al. Plants as sources of antimalarial drugs: in vitro antimalarial activities of some quassinoids. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1986; 30(1): 1014.
Trager, W., et al. Antimalarial activity of quassinoids against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1981; 30(3): 53137.

Anti-amebic & Anti-parasitic Actions:
Ninci, M. E. Prophylaxis and treatment of pediculosis [lice] with Quassia amarga. Rev. Fac. Cien. Med. Univ. Nac. Cordoba 1991; 49(2): 2731.
Wright, C. W., et al. Use of microdilution to assess in vitro antiamoebic activities of Brucea javanica fruits, Simarouba amara stem, and a number of quassinoids. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1988; 32(11): 1725-9
Jensen, O. Pediculosis capitis treated with Quassia tincture. Acta. Derm. Venereol. 1978; 58(6): 55759.
Jensen, O. Treatment of head lice with Quassia tincture. Ugeskr. Laeger. 1979; 141(4): 22526.

Insecticidal & Larvicidal Actions:
Flores, G., et al. "Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: III. Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae)." Rev. Biol. Trop. 2008 Dec; 56(4): 2131-46.
Evans, D. A., et al. Larvicidal efficacy of Quassin against Culex quinquefasciatus. Indian J. Med. Res. 1991 Sep; 93: 324-7.
Evans, D. A., et al. Extracts of Indian plants as mosquito larvicides. Indian J. Med. Res. 1988; 88(1): 3841.
Park, M. H., et al. Acute insecticidal activity of quassin and its congeners against the American cockroach. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1987; 35(7): 3082-5.
Roark, R. C. Some promising insecticidal plants. Econ. Bot. 1947; 1: 43745.

Anti-fertility Actions:
Parveen, S., et al. A comprehensive evaluation of the reproductive toxicity of Quassia amara in male rats. Reprod. Toxicol. 2003; 17(1): 4550.
Raji, Y., et al. Antifertility activity of Quassia amara in male rats - in vivo study. Life Sci. 1997; 61(11): 1067-74.
Njar, V. C., et al. Antifertility activity of Quassia amara: quassin inhibits the steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells in vitro. Planta Med. 1995 Apr; 61(2): 180-2.

Antimicrobial Actions:
Xu, Z., et al. Anti-HIV agents 45(1) and antitumor agents 205. (2) Two new sesquiterpenes, leitneridanins A and B, andthe cytotoxic and anti-HIV principles from Leitneria floridana. J. Nat. Prod. 2000; 63(12): 171215.
Abdel-Malek, S., et al. Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50: 15766.
Ajaiyeoba, E.O., et al. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Quassia undulata and Quassia amara extracts in vitro. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2003 Dec; 32(4): 353-6.
Apers, S., et al. Antiviral activity of simalikalactone D, a quassinoid from Quassia africana. Planta Med. 2002; 25(9): 115155.
Morre, D. J., et al. Effect of the quassinoids glaucarubolone and simalikalactone D on growth of cells permanently infected with feline and human immunodeficiency viruses and on viral infections. Life Sci. 1998; 62(3): 213-9.

Cytotoxic Actions:
Kupchan, S. M. Quassimarin, a new antileukemic quassinoid from Quassia amara. J. Org. Chem. 1976; 41(21): 348182.

Gastric & Anti-ulcer Actions:
Sugimoto, N., et al. Analysis of constituents in Jamaica quassia extract, a natural bittering agent. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2003 Dec; 44(6): 328-31.
Toma, W., et al. Antiulcerogenic activity of four extracts obtained from the bark wood of Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae). Planta Med. 2002; 68(1): 2024.
Garcia Gonzalez, M., et al. Pharmacologic activity of the aqueous wood extract from Quassia amara (Simarubaceae) on albino rats and mice. Rev. Biol. Trop. 1997; 4445: 4750.
Tada, H., et al. Novel anti-ulcer agents and quassinoids. U.S. patent no. 4,731,459. 1988.

Anti-inflammatory & Pain-relieving Actions:
Verma, N., et al. "Evaluation of inhibitory activities of plant extracts on production of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators in J774 murine macrophages." Mol. Cell Biochem. 2009 Oct 8.
Toma, W., et al. Evaluation of the analgesic and antiedematogenic activities of Quassia amara bark extract. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 85(1): 1923.

Chemical Constituents Identified:
Tada, A., et al. "Examination of original plant of Jamaica quassia extract, a natural bittering agent, based on composition of the constituents." Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2009 Feb; 50(1): 16-21.

-----

TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

In the Amazon rainforest, amargo is used much in the same manner as quinine bark: for malaria and fevers and as a bitter digestive aid. It grows at lower elevations (where quinine does not) and contains many of the same antimalarial phytochemicals (plant chemicals) as quinine.

In addition, it is used as an insecticide and tonic, and for hepatitis. Brazilian Indians use the leaves in a bath for measles as well as in a mouthwash used after tooth extractions. Indians in Suriname use the bark for fever and parasites.

Throughout South America, amargo is a tribal remedy for debility, digestion problems, fever, liver problems, parasites, malaria, snakebite, and back spasms.

In current Brazilian herbal medicine systems, amargo is considered a tonic, digestion stimulant, blood cleanser, insecticide, and mild laxative.

It is recommended for diarrhea, intestinal worms, dysentery, dyspepsia, excessive mucus, expelling worms, intestinal gas, stomachache, anemia, and liver and gastrointestinal disorders. In Peru, amargo is employed as a bitter digestive aid to stimulate gastric and other digestive secretions as well as for fevers, tuberculosis, kidney stones and gallstones.

In Mexico, the wood is used for liver and gallbladder diseases and for intestinal parasites. In Nicaragua, amargo is used to expel worms and intestinal parasites as well as for malaria and anemia.

Throughout South America, the bitter principles of amargo are used to stimulate the appetite and secretion of digestive juices, as well as to expel worms and intestinal parasites.

In herbal medicine in the United States and Europe, amargo is employed as a bitter tonic for stomach, gallbladder, and other digestive problems (by increasing the flow of bile, digestive juices, and saliva); as a laxative, amebicide, and insecticide; and to expel intestinal worms.

In Europe, it is often found as a component in various herbal drugs that promote gallbladder, liver, and other digestive functions. In Britain, a water extract of the wood is used topically against scabies, fleas, lice, and other skin parasites.

U.S. herbalist David Hoffman recommends it as an excellent remedy for dyspeptic conditions, to stimulate production of saliva and digestive juices, and to increase the appetite (as well as for lice infestations and threadworms).

He also notes, "It may safely be used in all cases of lack of appetite such as anorexia nervosa and digestive sluggishness."

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sparkle7
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simarouba -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/simaruba.htm

excerpts-

Third-Party Published Research on Simarouba

All available third-party research on simarouba be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on simarouba is shown below:

Antimalarial, Antiparasitic, & Antiamebic Actions:
Francois, G., et al. Antimalarial and cytotoxic potential of four quassinoids from Hannoa chlorantha and Hannoa klaineana, and their structure-activity relationships. Int. J. Parasitol. 1998; 28(4): 635-40.
Franssen, F. F., et al. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1997; 41(7): 15003.
Wright, C. W., et al. Quassinoids exhibit greater selectivity against Plasmodium falciparum than against Entamoeba histoyltica, Giardia intestinalis or Toxoplasma gondii in vitro." J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 1993; 40(3): 24446.
Kirby, G. C., et al. In vitro studies on the mode of action of quassinoids with activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1989; 38(24): 436774.
ONeill, M. J., et al. Plants as sources of antimalarial drugs, Part 6. Activities of Simarouba amara fruits." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 22(2): 18390.
ONeill, M. J., et al. The activity of Simarouba amara against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1987; Suppl. 39: 80.
Monjour, I., et al. Therapeutic trials of experimental murine malaria with the quassinoid, glaucarubinone. C. R. Acad. Sci. Ill. 1987; 304(6): 12932.
Trager, W., et al. Antimalarial activity of quassinoids against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro." Am. J. Trp. Med. Hyg. 1981; 30(3): 53137.
Duriez, R., et al. Glaucarubin in the treatment of amebiasis." Presse Med. 1962; 70: 1291.
Spencer, C. F., et al. Survey of plants for antimalarial activity. Lloydia 1947; 10: 14574.
Cuckler, A. C., et al. Efficacy and toxicity of simaroubidin in experimental amoebiasis. Fed. Proc. 1944; 8: 284.
Shepheard, S., et al. "Persistent carriers of Entameba histolytica." Lancet 1918: 501.

Antimicrobial Actions:
Morre, D. J., et al. Effect of the quassinoids glaucarubolone and simalikalactone D on growth of cells permanently infected with feline and human immunodeficiency viruses and on viral infections. Life Sci. 1998; 62(3): 213-9.
Rahman, S., et al. Anti-tuberculosis activity of quassinoids. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1997; 45(9): 1527-9.
Kaif-A-Kamb, M., et al. Search for new antiviral agents of plant origin. Pharm. Acta Helv. 1992; 67(56): 130147.
Caceres, A. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1. Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 30(1): 5573.
May, G., et al. Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants in tissue cultures. Arzneim-Forsch 1978; 28(1): 17.

Anticancerous & Antileukemic Actions:
Rivero-Cruz, J. F., et al. Cytotoxic constituents of the twigs of Simarouba glauca collected from a plot in Southern Florida. Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(2): 136-40.
Mata-Greenwood, E., et al. Novel esters of glaucarubolone as inducers of terminal differentiation of promyelocytic HL-60 cells and inhibitors of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced preneoplastic lesion formation in mouse mammary organ culture. J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(12): 1509-13.
Morre, D. J., et al. Mode of action of the anticancer quassinoids--inhibition of the plasma membrane NADH oxidase. Life Sci. 1998; 63(7) :595-604.
Valeriote, F. A., et al. Anticancer activity of glaucarubinone analogues. Oncol Res. 1998; 10(4): 2018.
Ohno, N., et al. Synthesis of cytotoxic fluorinated quassinoids. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1997; 5(8): 1489-95.
Klocke, J. A., et al. "Growth inhibitory, insecticidal and antifeedant effects of some antileukemic and cytotoxic quassinoids on two species of agricultural pests." Experientia. 1985 Mar 15; 41(3): 379-82.
Handa, S. S., et al. Plant anticancer agents XXV. Constituents of Soulamea soulameoides. J. Nat. Prod. 1983; 46(3): 35964.
Polonsky, J. The isolation and structure of 13,18-dehydroglaucarubinone, a new antineoplastic quassinoid from Simarouba amara. Experientia. 1978; 34(9): 112223.
Ghosh, P. C., et al. Antitumor plants. IV. Constituents of Simarouba versicolor. Lloydia. 1977; 40(4): 36469.
Ogura, M. et al. Potential anticancer agents VI. Constituents of Ailanthus excelsa (Simaroubaceae)." Lloydia. 1977; 40(6): 57984.

Antipsoriatic Actions:
Bonte, F., et al. Simarouba amara extract increases human skin keratinocyte differentiation." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 53(2): 6574.

-----

TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

The leaves and bark of Simarouba have long been used as a natural medicine in the tropics. Simarouba was first imported into France from Guyana in 1713 as a remedy for dysentery.

When France suffered a dysentery epidemic from 1718 to 1725, simarouba bark was one of the few effective treatments. French explorers "discovered" this effective remedy when they found that the indigenous Indian tribes in the Guyana rainforest used simarouba bark as an effective treatment for malaria and dysentery - much as they still do today.

Other indigenous tribes throughout the South American rainforest use simarouba bark for fevers, malaria, and dysentery, as a hemostatic agent to stop bleeding, and as a tonic.

Simarouba also has a long history in herbal medicine in many other countries. In Cuba, where it is called gavilan, an infusion of the leaves or bark is considered to be astringent, a digestion and menstrual stimulant and an antiparasitic remedy.

It is taken internally for diarrhea, dysentery, malaria, and colitis; it is used externally for wounds and sores. In Belize the tree is called negrito or dysentery bark. There the bark (and occasionally the root) is boiled in water to yield a powerful astringent and tonic used to wash skin sores and to treat dysentery, diarrhea, stomach and bowel disorders, hemorrhages, and internal bleeding.

In Brazil it is employed much the same way against fever, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal parasites, indigestion, and anemia. In Brazilian herbal medicine, simarouba bark tea has long been the most highly recommended (and most effective) natural remedy against chronic and acute dysentery.

--

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

After a 200-year documented history of use for dysentery, its use for amebic dysentery was finally validated by conventional doctors in 1918. A military hospital in England demonstrated that the bark tea was an effective treatment for amebic dysentery in humans.

The Merck Institute reported that simarouba was 91.8% effective against intestinal amebas in humans in a 1944 study and, in 1962, other researchers found that the seeds of simarouba showed active anti-amebic activities in humans.

In the 1990s scientists again documented simarouba's ability to kill the most common dysentery-causing organism, Entamoeba histolytica, as well as two diarrhea-causing bacteria, Salmonella and Shigella.


Scientists first looked at simarouba's antimalarial properties in 1947, when they determined a water extract of the bark (as well as the root) demonstrated strong activity against malaria in chickens.

This study showed that doses of only 1 mg of bark extract per kg of body weight exhibited strong antimalarial activity. When new strains of malaria with resistance to our existing antimalarial drugs began to develop, scientists began studying simarouba once again.

Studies published between 1988 and 1997 demonstrated that simarouba and/or its three potent quassinoids were effective against malaria in vitro as well as in vivo. More importantly, the research indicated that the plant and its chemicals were effective against the new drug-resistant strains in vivo and in vitro.

While most people in North America will never be exposed to malaria, between 300 and 500 million cases of malaria occur each year in the world, leading to more than one million deaths annually.

Having an easily-grown tree in the tropics where most malaria occurs could be an important resource for an effective natural remedy-it certainly has worked for the Indians in the Amazon for ages.


It will be interesting to see if North American scientists investigate simarouba as a possibility for North America's only malaria-like disease: the newest mosquito-borne threat, West Nile virus.

It might be a good one to study because, in addition to its antimalarial properties, clinical research has shown good antiviral properties with simarouba bark. Researchers in 1978 and again in 1992 confirmed strong antiviral properties of the bark in vitro against herpes, influenza, polio, and vaccinia viruses.


Another area of research on simarouba and its plant chemicals has focused on cancer and leukemia. The quassinoids responsible for the anti-amebic and antimalarial properties have also shown in clinical research to possess active cancer-killing properties.

Early cancer screening performed by the National Cancer Institute in 1976 indicated that an alcohol extract of simarouba root (and a water extract of its seeds) had toxic actions against cancer cells at very low dosages (less than 20 mcg/ml).

Following up on that initial screening, scientists discovered that several of the quassinoids in simarouba (glaucarubinone, alianthinone, and dehydroglaucarubinone) had antileukemic actions against lymphocytic leukemia in vitro and published several studies in 1977 and 1978.

Researchers found that yet another simarouba quassinoid, holacanthone, also possessed antileukemic and antitumorous actions in 1983. Researchers in the UK cited the antitumorous activity of two of the quassinoids, ailanthinone and glaucarubinone, against human epidermoid carcinoma of the pharynx.

A later study in 1998 by U.S. researchers demonstrated the antitumorous activity of glaucarubinone against solid tumors (human and mouse cell lines), multi-drug-resistant mammary tumors in mice, and antileukemic activity against leukemia in mice.

Simarouba is the subject of one U.S. patent so far and, surprisingly, it's not for its antimalarial, anti-amebic, or even anticancerous actions.

Rather, water extracts of simarouba were found to increase skin keratinocyte differentiation and to improve skin hydration and moisturization. In 1997, a patent was filed on its use to produce a cosmetic or pharmaceutical skin product.

The patent describes simarouba extract as having significant skin depigmentation activity (for liver spots), enhancing the protective function of the skin (which maintains better moisturization), and having a significant keratinocyte differentiation activity (which protects against scaly skin).

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sparkle7
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boldo -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/boldo.htm

excerpts-

Third-Party Published Research on Boldo

All available third-party research on boldo can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on boldo is shown below:

Antioxidant & Cellular Protective Actions:
Fernndez, J. et al. "Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver." Phytother Res. 2009; 23(7):1024-7.
Yu, B., et al."The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J. Med. Food. 2009 Oct; 12(5): 1074-83.
Konrath, E., et al. "Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of boldine on hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro." Neurotoxicology. 2008 Nov; 29(6): 1136-40.
Hidalgo, M., et al. "Photostability and photoprotection factor of boldine and glaucine." J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2005 Jul; 80(1): 65-9.
O'brien, P., et al. Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2006 Jan; 159(1): 1-17.
Milian, L., et al. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation inhibited by aporphine and phenanthrene alkaloids semi-synthesized from natural boldine. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 52(6): 696-9.
Santanam, N., et al. A novel alkaloid antioxidant, Boldine and synthetic antioxidant, reduced form of RU486, inhibit the oxidation of LDL in-vitro and atherosclerosis in vivo in LDLR(-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Apr; 173(2):203-10.
Schmeda-Hirschmann, G., Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants from Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo").
Free Radic. Res. 2003 Apr; 37(4): 447-52.
Youn, Y. C., et al. Protective effect of boldine on dopamine-induced membrane permeability transition in brain mitochondria and viability loss in PC12 cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2002 Feb; 63(3): 495-505.
Jimenez, I., et al. Protective effects of boldine against free radical-induced erythrocyte lysis. Phytother. Res. 2000; 14(5): 33943.
Reiniger, I. W., et al. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Dec; 68(1-3): 345-8.
Ubeda, A., et al. Iron-reducing and free-radical-scavenging properties of apomorphine and some related benzylisoquinolines. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1993 Aug; 15(2): 159-67.
Speisky, H., et al. Antioxidant properties of the alkaloid boldine in systems undergoing lipid peroxidation and enzyme inactivation. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1991 Jun; 41(11): 1575-81.

Liver Protective & Detoxifying Actions:
Kubinova, R., et al. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Pharmazie. 2001; 56(3): 24243.
Jimenez, I., et al. Biological disposition of boldine: in vitro and in vivo studies. Phytother. Res. 2000 Jun; 14(4): 254-60.
Jang, Y. Y., et al. Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacol. Res. 2000; 42(4): 36171.
Bannach, R., et al. Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of boldine on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to isolated hepatocytes. Cell Biol. Toxicol. 1996 Apr; 12(2): 89-100.
Kringstein, P., et al. Boldine prevents human liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and inactivation of cytochrome P4502E1. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1995; 18(3): 55963.
Cederbaum, A. I., et al. Inhibition of rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by boldine. Biochem, Pharmacol. 1992 Nov; 44(9): 1765-72.
Lanhers, M. C., et al. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus. Planta Med. 1991; 57(2): 11015.

Anti-cholesterol, Hypoglycemic, & Anti-platelet Actions:
Chi, T., et al. "Antihyperglycemic effect of aporphines and their derivatives in normal and diabetic rats." Planta Med. 2006 Oct; 72(13):1175-80.
Eltze, M., et al. Affinity profile at alpha(1)- and alpha(2) - adrenoceptor subtypes and in vitro cardiovascular actions of (+) - boldine. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2002; 443(1-3): 151-68.
Teng, C. M., et al. Antiplatelet effects of some aporphine and phenanthrene alkaloids in rabbits and man. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1997; 49(7): 70611.
Almeida, E. R., et al. Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats. Phytother. Res. 2000; 14(2): 99102.
Chen, K. S., et al. Antiplatelet and vasorelaxing actions of some aporphinoids. Planta Med. 1996; 62(2): 13336.

Digestive Stimulant, Diuretic & Bile Stimulant Actions:
Gotteland, M., et al. Protective effect of boldine in experimental colitis. Planta Med. 1997; 63(4): 31115.
Gotteland, M., et al. Effect of a dry boldo extract on oro-cecal intestinal transit in healthy volunteers. Rev. Med. Chil. 1995; 123(8): 95560.
Lvy-Appert-Collin, M. C., et al. Galenic preparations from Peumus boldus leaves (Monimiacea). J. Pharm. Belg. 1977; 32: 13.
Hughes, D. W., et al. Alkaloids of Peumus boldus. Isolation of laurotetanine and laurolitsine. J. Pharm. Sci. 1968.

Gallbladder Bile Stimulant Actions:
Speisky, H., et al. Boldo and boldine: an emerging case of natural drug development. Pharmacol. Res. 1994 Jan-Feb; 29(1): 1-12.
Tavares, D. C., et al. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the alkaloid boldine in mammalian cell systems in vitro and in vivo. Mutat. Res. 1994; 321(3): 13945.
Krug, H., et al. New flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina. Pharmazie, 1965; Nov.

Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Muscle-Relaxant & Anti-Spasmodic Actions:
Zhao, Q., et al. "Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of alkaloids isolated from Lindera angustifolia Chen." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jul; 106(3):408-13.
Ivorra, M., et al. "8-NH2-boldine, an antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B adrenoceptors without affinity for the alpha1D subtype: structural requirements for aporphines at alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes." Planta Med. 2005 Oct; 71(10): 897-903.
Estelles, R., et al. Effect of boldine, secoboldine, and boldine methine on angiotensin II-induced neurtrophil recruitment in vivo. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2005 Sep; 78(3): 696-704.
Kang, J. J., et al. Studies on neuromuscular blockade by boldine in the mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm. Planta Med. 1999; 65(2): 17879.
Kang, J. J., et al. Effects of boldine on mouse diaphragm and sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle. Planta Med. 1998; 64(1): 1821.
Backhouse, N., et al. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine. Agents Actions 1994; 42(34): 11417.
Ivorra, M. D., et al. Different mechanism of relaxation induced by aporphine alkaloids in rat uterus. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1993; 45(5): 43943.
Lanhers, M. C., et al. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus. Planta Med. 1991; 57(2): 11015.

Anthelmintic (worm expelling) & Antiparasitic Actions:
van Krimpen, M., et al. "Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs." Vet. Parasitol. 2009 Nov 13.
Morello, A., et al. Trypanocidal effect of boldine and related alkaloids upon several strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Endocrinol. 1994; 107(3): 367-71.
Johnson, M. A., et al. Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1984 Nov; 235(1): 254-66

Anticancerous & Antileukemic Actions:
Gerhardt, D., et al. "Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines." Invest. New Drugs. 2008 Dec 3.
Stevigny, C., et al. Cytotoxic and antitumor potentialities of aporphinoid alkaloids. Curr. Med. Chem. Anti-Cancer Agents. 2005 Mar; 5(2): 173-82.
Gonzalez-Cabello, R., et al. Effects of boldine on cellular immune functions in vitro. J. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 1994 May-Jun; 4(3): 139-45.

Antifungal Actions:
Bluma, R., et al. "Control of Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin accumulation by plant essential oils." J. Appl. Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 105(1): 203-14.

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TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

Indigenous uses of boldo have been widely documented. Legend has it that the medicinal uses of the plant were discovered by chance: a Chilean shepherd noticed that his sheep were healthier, and had fewer liver problems, when they grazed on native boldo plants growing in his fields.

Since this discovery the plant has been used by the indigenous peoples of Chile for liver, bowel, and gallbladder troubles. It is also widely used in Chilean folk medicine to expel intestinal worms, for insomnia, rheumatism, cystitis, colds, hepatitis, constipation, flatulence, poor digestion, gallstones, earaches, and it is considered a general tonic.

For many years the fruit has been eaten as a spice, the wood has been used for charcoal, and the bark has been used in tanning hides. In parts of Peru boldo leaves are used by indigenous tribes against liver diseases, to treat gallstones, and as a diuretic.


Boldo's uses in other traditional medicine systems are well documented. Worldwide, the plant is used in homeopathy and herbal medicine in the treatment of digestive disorders, as a laxative, a diuretic, for liver problems and to increase the production of bile in the gallbladder.

The leaves are used against intestinal worms, and botanist Dr. James Duke reports its traditional use for urogenital inflammations, gonorrhea, syphilis, gout, jaundice, dyspepsia, rheumatism, head colds, and earaches.

In Brazilian herbal medicine systems, boldo is used for a variety of disorders including hepatitis, liver congestion, constipation, flatulence, dizziness, stomach and intestinal cramps and pain, gallstones, insomnia, rheumatism, and a lack of appetite.

Throughout the rest of South America, boldo is used for gonorrhea, as well as for liver, gallbladder, and digestive complaints.


Boldo is the subject of a German therapeutic monograph that allows the use (as an herbal drug) for mild gastrointestinal spasms and dyspeptic disorders. In Germany, it is employed for liver and gallbladder complaints, gastric disorders, and to stimulate gastric secretions (especially bile production and secretion in the gallbladder and liver).

It is also used for loss of appetite and as an antispasmodic. It is used for similar purposes in other countries throughout Europe.

In American herbal medicine systems, boldo is used to stimulate the secretion of saliva, bile flow and liver activity; it's chiefly valued as a remedy for gallstones, liver problems, and gallbladder pain.

---


BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

Researchers verified indigenous uses of boldo leaves in the 1950s and 1960s and showed that leaf extracts had diuretic, digestion stimulation, and bile-producing properties in animal studies.

Although these properties are attributed largely to the plant chemical boldine, one study with rats indicated that an alcohol extract of boldo leaves was more active than boldine alone. An ethanol extract of the leaf administered to mice was shown to have a liver protective effect, preventing liver damage from chemical exposure.

A recent human study demonstrated that boldo relaxes smooth muscle tissue and prolongs intestinal transit (which again validates its traditional uses for digestive functions).

The antioxidant property of boldo leaves has also been documented, and animal studies confirm that boldo leaf has an anti-inflammatory effect. A U.S. monograph reports that boldo can increase urine output by 50%, which validates the plant's traditional use as a diuretic.


Toxicity studies show that boldo should not be consumed regularly or in high dosages, and it should be respected for its very active qualities.

The essential oil of the plant contains a compound called asaridole. Asaridole has antiparasitic and worm- expelling properties, but it is also a documented liver toxin.

Therefore, distilled essential oil products of boldo should only be used externally. In addition, boldine has been reported to have toxic effects in high dosages.

In large quantities (higher than it occurs in traditional dosages of the natural leaf), it causes cramps, convulsions, and muscle paralysis, eventually leading to respiratory paralysis.

It also has demonstrated a uterine relaxant effect in rats. In a 2000 study with rats, an extract of dry boldo leaves and the chemical boldine showed abortive actions and lowered the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and urea.

These researchers reported, however, that the long-term administration of regular dosages of the leaf extract and boldine did not cause any toxic effect over a period of 90 days.

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fedegoso -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/fedegosa.htm

excerpts-

Third-Party Research on Fedegoso

All available third-party research on fedegoso can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on fedegoso is shown below:

Antimicrobial Actions:
Evans CE, et al. Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: an in vitro study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Apr; 80(1): 21-4.
Samy, R. P., et al. Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants used by tribals in Western Ghats of India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 69(1): 6371.
Anesini, C., et al. Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 11928.
Caceres, A., et al. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 26376.
Hussain, H., et al. Plants in Kano ethomedicine: screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 516.
Gaind, K. N., et al. Antibiotic activity of Cassia occidentalis. Indian J. Pharmacy 1966; 28(9): 24850.

Immunostimulant Actions:
Bin-Hafeez, B., et al. Protective effect of Cassia occidentalis L. on cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of humoral immunity in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 75(1): 1318.

Liver Protective & Detoxification Actions:
Jafri, M. A., et al. Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 66(3): 35561.
Sharma, N., et al. Protective effect of Cassia occidentalis extract on chemical-induced chromosomal aberrations in mice. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1999; 22(4): 64353.
Saraf, S., et al. Antiheptatotoxic activity of Cassia occidentalis. Int. J. Pharmacog. 1994; 32(2): 17883.
Subbarao, V. V., et al. Changes in serum transaminases due to hepatotoxicity and the role of an indigenous hepatotonic, LIV-52. Probe 1978; 17(2): 17578.
Sethi, J. P., et al. Clinical management of severe acute hepatic failure with special reference to LIV-52 in therapy. Probe 1978; 17(2): 15558.
Sama, S., et al. Efficacy of an indigenous compound preparation (LIV-52) in acute viral hepatitisA double blind study. Indian J. Med. Res. 1976; 64: 738.

Antimutagenic (cancer preventative) Actions:
Bin-Hafeez, B., et al. Protective effect of Cassia occidentalis L. on cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of humoral immunity in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 75(1): 1318.
Sharma, N., et al. In vitro inhibition of carcinogen-induced mutagenicity by Cassia occidentalis and Emblica officinalis. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 2000; 23(3): 47784.
Sharma, N., et al. Protective effect of Cassia occidentalis extract on chemical-induced chromosomal aberrations in mice. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1999; 22(4): 64353.

Laxative Actions:
Elujoba, A., et al. Chemical and biological analyses of Nigerian Cassia species for laxative activity. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 1989; 7(12): 145357.

Anti-inflammatory & Antispasmodic Actions:
Sadique, J., et al. Biochemical modes of action of Cassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in inflammation. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 19(2): 20112.
Feng, P., et al. Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1962; 14: 55661.

Antimalarial & Antiparasitic Actions:
Tona, L., et al. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul; 93(1): 27-32.
Tona, L., et al. In-vivo antimalarial activity of Cassia occidentalis, Morinda morindoides and Phyllanthus niruri. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 2001; 95(1): 4757.
Gasquet, M., et al. Evaluation in vitro and in vivo of a traditional antimalarial, Malarial 5. Fitoterapia 1993; 64(5): 423.
Schmeda-Hirschmann, G., et al. A screening method for natural products on triatomine bugs. Phytother. Res. 1989; 6(2): 6873.

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TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

Fedegoso has been used as natural medicine in the rainforest and other tropical areas for centuries. Its roots, leaves, flowers, and seeds have been employed in herbal medicine around the world.

In Peru, the roots are considered a diuretic, and a decoction is made for fevers. The seeds are brewed into a coffee-like beverage for asthma, and a flower infusion is used for bronchitis in the Peruvian Amazon.

In Brazil, the roots of fedegoso are considered a tonic, fever reducer, and diuretic; they are used for fevers, menstrual problems, tuberculosis, anemia, liver complaints, and as a tonic for general weakness and illness.

The leaves are also used in Brazil for gonorrhea, fevers, urinary tract disorders, edema, and menstrual problems.

The Miskito Indians of Nicaragua use a fresh plant decoction for general pain, menstrual and uterine pain, and constipation in babies.

In Panama, a leaf tea is used for stomach colic, the crushed leaves are used in a poultice as an anti-inflammatory, and the crushed fresh leaves are taken internally to expel intestinal worms and parasites.

In many countries around the world, the fresh and/or dried leaves of fedegoso are crushed or brewed into a tea and applied externally for skin disorders, wounds, skin fungus, parasitic skin diseases, abscesses, and as a topical analgesic and antiinflammatory natural medicine.

---

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

Fedegoso has been the subject of recent clinical research for its beneficial effects on the liver and immune system. In the late 1970s, two research groups published three studies citing the beneficial effects of fedegoso in human patients with liver toxicity, hepatitis, and even acute liver failure.

Other researchers followed up on those actions, publishing four different in vivo studies (mice and rats) from 1994 to 2001. These studies report that fedegoso leaf extracts have the ability to protect the liver from various introduced chemical toxins, normalize liver enzymes and processes, and repair liver damage.

Some of this research has also demonstrated significant immunostimulant activity by increasing humoral immunity and bone marrow immune cells in mice, and protecting them from chemically-induced immunosuppresion.

These researchers and oers also reported the antimutagenic actions of fedegoso. In this research, fedegoso was able to prevent or reduce the mutation of healthy cells in the presence of laboratory chemicals which were known to mutate them.

In other in vivo studies, fedegoso leaf extracts have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, smooth-muscle relaxant, antispasmodic, weak uterine stimulant, vasoconstrictor, and antioxidant activities in laboratory animals.

These documented actions certainly help to explain its uses in traditional medicine systems for menstrual cramps and other internal inflammatory conditions.

Fedegoso has also been used for many types of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections for many years in the tropical countries where it grows. In vitro clinical research on fedegoso leaves over the years has reported active antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, insecticidal, and antimalarial properties.

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carqueja -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/carqueja.htm

excerpt-

Third-Party Published Research on Carqueja

All available third-party research on carqueja can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on carqueja is shown below:

Antacid & Anti-ulcer Actions:
Gonzales, E., et al. Gastric cytoprotection of Bolivian medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 70(3):32933.
Gamberini, M. T., et al. Aoes antilcera e anticida do extracto aquoso e das fraoes da Baccharis trimera. Anais XII Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil. UFP: Curitiba, Paran, 1517 September 1992.
Sousa, B., et al., Avaliaao da atividade antiulcera do extrato bruto e fraoes de Baccharis trimera. Anais XII Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil. UFP: Curitiba, Paran, 1517 September 1992.
Gamberini, M. T., et al. Inhibition of gastric secretion by a water extract from Baccharis triptera. Mart. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1991; 86(Suppl. 2): 137-9.

Liver Protective & Detoxification Actions:
Soicke, H., et al. Characterisation of flavonoids from Baccharis trimera and their antihepatotoxic properties. Planta Med. 1987; 53(1): 379.

Anti-inflammatory, Muscle Relaxant, & Pain-Relieving Actions:
Paul, E., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Baccharis trimera Aqueous Extract on Induced Pleurisy in Rats and Lymphoproliferation In Vitro." Inflammation. 2009 Sep 15.
Abad, M. J., et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of four Bolivian Baccharis species (Compositae). J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb; 103(3): 338-44.
Coelho, M. G., et al. Anti-arthritic effect and subacute toxicological evaluation of Baccharis genistelloides aqueous extract. Toxicol. Lett. 2004 1; 154(1-2): 69-80.
Hnatyszyn, O., et al. Argentinian plant extracts with relaxant effect on the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum of guinea pig. Phytomedicine. 2003 Nov; 10(8): 669-74.
Torres, L. M., et al. Diterpene from Baccharis trimera with a relaxant effect on rat vascular smooth muscle. Phytochemistry. 2000 Nov; 55(6): 617-9.
Gene, R. M., et al. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Baccharis trimera: Identification of its active constituents. Planta. Med. 1996; 62(3): 2325.
Gene, R. M., et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of three species of the genus Baccharis. Planta Med. 1992 Dec; 58(6): 565-6.

Antmicrobial Actions:
Morales, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of three Baccharis species used in the traditional medicine of Northern Chile." Molecules. 2008; 13(4): 790-4.
Betoni, J., et al. "Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun; 101(4): 387-90.
Sanchez Palomino, S., et al. Screening of South American plants against human immunodeficiency virus: preliminary fractionation of aqueous extract from Baccharis trinervis. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2002; 25(9): 1147-50.
Abad, M. J., et al. Antiviral activity of Bolivian plant extracts. Gen. Pharmacol. 1999; 32(4): 499503.
Abad, M. J., et al. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants. Phytother. Res. 1999 Mar; 13(2): 142-6.
Robinson, W. E., et al. Inhibitors of HIV-1 replication that inhibit HIV Integrase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1996; 93(13): 632631.
Abdel-Malek, S., et al. Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50(3): 15766.

Hypoglycemic & Antidiabetic Actions:
Dickel, M., et al. "Plants popularly used for loosing weight purposes in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan; 109(1): 60-71.
Oliveira, A. C., et al. Effect of the extracts and fractions of Baccharis trimera and Syzygium cumini on glycaemia of diabetic and non-diabetic mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec; 102(3): 465-9.
Hossen, S., et al. Evaluacion in vivo de la actividad hipoglucemiante de plantas medicinales de los valles altos y bajos de Cochabamba. Ed. Universidad Mayor De San Simn Instituto de Investigaciones Bioqumico-Farmacuticas-Programa 2001; Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Alonso, P. E., et al. Uso racional de las plantas medicinales. Ed. Fin De Siglo Facultad de Qumica 1992; Montevideo, Uruguay.
Xavier, A. A., et al. Effect of an extract of Baccharis genistelloides on the glucose level of the blood. C. R. Seances Soc. Biol. Fil. 1967; 16(4): 9724.

Antioxidant Actions:
Rodrigues, C., et al. "Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of Baccharis trimera in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Aug; 125(1): 97-101.
Mendes, F., et al. "Evaluation of Baccharis trimera and Davilla rugosa in tests for adaptogen activity." Phytother Res. 2007; 21(6): 517-22.
Simoes-Pires, C. A., et al. Isolation and on-line identification of antioxidant compounds from three Baccharis species by HPLC-UV-MS/MS with post-column derivatisation. Phytochem. Anal. 2005 Sep-Oct; 16(5): 307-14.
Melo, S. F., et al. Effect of the Cymbopogon citratus, Maytenus ilicifolia and Baccharis genistelloides extracts against the stannous chloride oxidative damage in Escherichia coli. Mutat. Res. 2001 Sep; 496(1-2): 33-8.
Sharp, H., et al. 6-Oxygenated flavones from Baccharis trinervis (Asteraceae). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2001; 29(1): 105-107.
de las Heras, B., et al. Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Ecuador. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Jun; 61(2): 161-6.

Antivenin Actions:
Januario, A. H., et al. Neo-clerodane diterpenoid, a new metalloprotease snake venom inhibitor from Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae): anti-proteolytic and anti-hemorrhagic properties. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2004 Dec 7; 150(3): 243-51.

Toxicity Studies
Rodrigues, C., et al. "Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of Baccharis trimera in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Aug; 125(1): 97-101.
Grance, S., et al. "Baccharis trimera: effect on hematological and biochemical parameters and hepatorenal evaluation in pregnant rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Apr; 117(1): 28-33.

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TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

Indigenous peoples of the rainforest have utilized this herb for centuries to cure common ailments. Its uses in herbal medicine were first recorded in Brazil in 1931 by Pio Correa, who wrote about an infusion of carqueja being used for sterility in women and impotency in men.

Correa described carqueja as having the therapeutic properties of a tonic, bitter, febrifuge, and stomachic, with cited uses for dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, liver diseases, and diarrhea.

Since that time, carqueja has long been used in Brazilian medicine to treat liver diseases, to strengthen stomach and intestinal function, and to help purge obstructions of the liver and gallbladder.

Almost every book published in Brazil on herbal medicine includes carqueja, since it has shown to be so effective for liver and digestive disorders as well as a good blood cleanser and fever reducer.

Other popular uses for carqueja in Brazilian herbal medicine today are to treat malaria, diabetes, stomach ulcers, sore throat and tonsillitis, angina, anemia, diarrhea, indigestion, hydropsy, urinary inflammation, kidney disorders, intestinal worms, leprosy, and poor blood circulation.


In Peruvian herbal medicine today, carqueja is used for liver ailments, gallstones, diabetes, allergies, gout, intestinal gas and bloating, and venereal diseases.

Herbalists and natural health practitioners in the United States are just learning of the many effective uses of carqueja. They document that it helps strengthen digestive, ileocecal valve, stomach, and liver functions; fortifies and cleanses the blood; expels intestinal worms; is helpful for poor digestion, liver disorders, anemia, or loss of blood; and removes obstructions in the gallbladder and liver.

---

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

Carqueja's liver protective properties were confirmed in a clinical study when a crude flavonoid fraction of carqueja as well as a crude leaf/stem extract dose-dependently increased the survival rate to 100% in mice administered lethal dosages of phalloidin- a liver toxin (as compared to only a 24% survival rate in the control group).

While these scientists indicated that the single flavonoid hispidulin evidenced the highest liver-protective effect of the flavonoids tested (it increased survival to 80%), the crude extract and the whole flavonoid fraction provided a stronger liver detoxifying and protective effect than the single flavonoid.

This led them to think that other constituents in the crude extract, besides the flavonoids, had liver-protective effects and/or there were interactions between the flavonoids and other plant chemicals that potentiated the flavonoids'effects.


Other traditional uses of carqueja have been studied and validated by research. Its antacid, antiulcer, and hypotensive properties were documented in two Brazilian animal studies in 1992.

Its antiulcer and pain-relieving properties were reported in a 1991 clinical study that showed that carqueja reduced gastric secretions and had an analgesic effect in rats with H. pylori ulcers.

That study concluded that carqueja "may relieve gastrointestinal disorders by reducing acid secretion and gastrointestinal hyperactivity." A later study, in 2000, confirmed its antiulcerogenic effect when a water extract of carqueja administered to rats protected them from alcohol-induced ulcers.

Other researchers documented carqueja's pain-relieving effects. This same research group in Spain also reported a strong anti-inflammatory effect - a 70%-90% inhibition-when mice were treated with the carqueja extract prior to being treated with various chemicals that induced inflammation.


Carqueja has also long been used in South America as a natural aid for diabetes, and several studies confirm its blood sugar-lowering effect in mice, rats, and humans (in both normal and diabetic subjects).

Finally, carqueja's traditional use for colds, flu, and stomach viruses has also been verified by research. Some of the more recent research has focused on its antiviral properties.

In a clinical study published in 1999, researchers in Spain reported that a water extract of carqueja showed in vitro antiviral actions against Herpes simplex I and Vesicular stomatitis viruses at low dosages.

Researchers in Texas had already reported in 1996 that a water extract of carqueja provided an in vitro inhibition of HIV virus replication in T-cells. In subsequent research, they've attributed this anti-HIV effect to a single chemical they found in the water extract of carqueja- 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid-and reported that this plant chemical is a potent inhibitor of HIV at dosages as low as only 1 mcg/ml.

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sparkle7
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quinine -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/quinine.htm

excerpt-

Third-Party Published Research on Quinine

All available third-party research on quinine can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on quinine is shown below:

Anti-Parasitic & Antimalarial Actions:
Kumura, N., et al. Synthesis and biological activity of fatty acid derivatives of quinine. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2005; 69(11): 2250-3.
Bertani, S., et al. Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 8; 98(1-2): 45-54.
Kanda, E., et al. A female patient with malarial nephropathy. Clin. Exp. Nephrol. 2004 Dec; 8(4): 359-62.
Pukrittayakamee, S., et al. Quinine pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003; 47(11): 3458-63.
Warhurst, D. C., et al. The relationship of physico-chemical properties and structure to the differential antiplasmodial activity of the cinchona alkaloids. Malar. J. 2003 Sep 1; 2: 26.
Pussard, E., et al. Quinine distribution in mice with Plasmodium berghei malaria. Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2003 Jan-Mar; 28(1): 11-20.
Vieira, J. L., et al. Drug monitoring of quinine in men with nonsevere falciparum malaria: study in the Amazon region of Brazil. Ther. Drug Monit. 2001 Dec; 23(6): 612-5.
Aviado, D. M., et al. "Antimalarial and antiarrhythmic activity of plant extracts." Medicina ExperimentalisInternational Journal of Experimental Medicine 1969; 19(20), 7994.

Bitter Digestive Actions:
Yeomans, M. R. "Olfactory influences on appetite and satiety in humans." Physiol. Behav. 2006 Aug; 89(1): 10-4.
Kozlov, A. P., et al. Taste differentiation in the context of suckling and independent, adultlike ingestive behavior.
Dev. Psychobiol. 2006 Mar; 48(2): 133-45.
Dinehart, M. E., et al. Bitter taste markers explain variability in vegetable sweetness, bitterness, and intake.
Physiol. Behav. 2006; 87(2): 304-13.

Anti-cramping Actions:
Woodfield. R., et al. N-of-1 trials of quinine efficacy in skeletal muscle cramps of the leg. Br. J. Gen. Pract. 2005 Mar; 55(512): 181-5.
Diener, H. C., et al. "Effectiveness of quinine in treating muscle cramps: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre trial." Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2002; 56(4): 24346.
Man-Son-Hing, M., et al. "Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps: a meta-analysis including unpublished data." J. Gen. Intern. Med. 1998; 13(9): 6006.

Antimicrobial Actions:
Rojas, J. J., et al. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2006 Feb 17; 6(1): 2.
Wolf, R., et al. Quinine sulfate and HSV replication. Dermatol. Online J. 2003 Aug; 9(3): 3.

Neuroprotective Actions:
Gigout, S., et al. Effects of gap junction blockers on human neocortical synchronization. Neurobiol. Dis. 2006 Jun; 22(3): 496-508.

Actions on Insulin Sensitivity:
Rustenbeck, I., et al. "Desensitization of insulin secretion by depolarizing insulin secretagogues." Diabetes. 2004 Dec; 53 Suppl 3: S140-50.
Grosse-Lackmann, T., et al. "Specificity of nonadrenergic imidazoline binding sites in insulin-secreting cells and relation to the block of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2003 Dec; 1009: 371-7.
Rustenbeck, I., et al. "Desensitization of insulin secretory response to imidazolines, tolbutamide, and quinine. II. Electrophysiological and fluorimetric studies." Biochem. Pharmacol. 2001 Dec; 62(12): 1695-703.
Rustenbeck, I., et al. "Desensitization of insulin secretory response to imidazolines, tolbutamide, and quinine. I. Secretory and morphological studies." Biochem. Pharmacol. 2001 Dec; 62(12): 1685-94.
Limburg, P.J., et al. "Quinine-induced hypoglycemia." Ann. Intern. Med. 1993 Aug; 119(3): 218-9.

MAO Actions:
Itoh, K., et al. Stereospecific oxidation of the (S)-enantiomer of RS-8359, a selective and reversible monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor, by aldehyde oxidase. Xenobiotica. 2005; 35(6): 561-73.
Itoh, K., et al. Species differences in enantioselective 2-oxidations of RS-8359, a selective and reversible MAO-A inhibitor, and cinchona alkaloids by aldehyde oxidase. Biopharm. Drug Dispos. 2006 Jan 6;27(3):133-139

Quinine Toxicity:
Flanagan, K. L., et al. Quinine levels revisited: the value of routine drug level monitoring for those on parenteral therapy. Acta. Trop. 2006; 97(2): 233-7.
Osinubi, A. A., Morphometric and stereological assessment of the effects of long-term administration of quinine on the morphology of rat testis. West Afr. J. Med. 2005 Jul-Sep; 24(3): 200-5.
Adam, I., et al. Quinine for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in pregnant Sudanese women in the first trimester. East Mediterr. Health J. 2004 Jul-Sep; 10(4-5): 560-5.
Adam, I., et al. Low-dose quinine for treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in Sudanese pregnant women. East Mediterr. Health J. 2004 Jul-Sep; 10(4-5): 554-9.
Gopal, K. V., et al. Unique responses of auditory cortex networks in vitro to low concentrations of quinine.
Hear. Res. 2004 Jun; 192(1-2): 10-22.
Morrison, L. D., et al. Death by quinine. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 2003 Dec; 45(6): 303-6.
Langford, N. J., et al. Quinine intoxications reported to the Scottish Poisons Information Bureau 1997-2002: a continuing problem. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2003 Nov; 56(5): 576-8.

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TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

Cinchona, or quinine bark, is one of the rainforest's most famous plants and most important discoveries.

Legend has it that the name cinchona came from the countess of Chinchon, the wife of a Peruvian viceroy, who was cured of a malarial type of fever by using the bark of the cinchona tree in 1638.

It was supposedly introduced to European medicine in 1640 by the countess of Chinchon, even before botanists had identified and named the species of tree. Quinine bark was first advertised for sale in England in 1658, and was made official in the British Pharmacopoeia in 1677.

Physicians gave credit to the drug and, because of its effectiveness with malaria, it was recognized officially even while the identity of the tree species remained unknown.

Several years after the "Countess's powder" arrived in England, it arrived in Spain. There, quinine bark was used by the Jesuits very early in its history and due to the influence of the Company of Jesus, the newly named "Jesuit's powder" became known all over Europe.

When the plant was finally botanically classified almost one hundred years later in 1737, botanists still named it after the countess for her contribution. Throughout the mid-1600s to mid-1800s quinine bark was the primary treatment for malaria and it evidenced remarkable results.

It was also used for fever, indigestion, mouth and throat diseases, and cancer.


Natural quinine bark is still employed in herbal medicine systems around the world today. In Brazilian herbal medicine quinine bark is considered a tonic, a digestive stimulant, and fever-reducer.

It is used for anemia, indigestion, gastrointestinal disorders, general fatigue, fevers, malaria and as an appetite stimulant. Other folk remedies in South America cite quinine bark as a natural remedy for cancer (breast, glands, liver, mesentery, spleen), amebic infections, heart problems, colds, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, fevers, flu, hangover, lumbago, malaria, neuralgia, pneumonia, sciatica, typhoid, and varicose veins.

In European herbal medicine the bark is considered antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antimalarial, a bitter tonic, and a fever-reducer. There it is used as an appetite stimulant, for hair loss, alcoholism, liver, spleen, and gallbladder disorders; and to treat irregular heart beat, anemia, leg cramps, and fevers of all kinds.

In the U.S., quinine bark is used as a tonic and digestive aid; to reduce heart palpitations and normalize heart functions; to stimulate digestion and appetite; for hemorrhoids, varicose veins, headaches, leg cramps, colds, flu, and indigestion; and for its astringent, bactericidal, and anesthetic actions in various other conditions.

---

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

Interestingly enough, natural quinine extracted from quinine bark and the use of natural bark tea and/or bark extracts are making a comeback in the management and treatment of malaria.

Malaria strains have evolved which have developed a resistance to the synthesized quinine drugs. It was shown in early studies that an effective dose of natural quinine bark extract elicited the same antimalarial activity as an effective dose of the synthesized quinine drug.

Scientists are now finding that these new strains of drug-resistant malaria can be treated effectively with natural quinine and/or quinine bark extracts.

As evolving pathogens develop widespread resistance to our standard antibiotics, antivirals, and antimalarial drugs, it is of little wonder that the use of the natural medicine in quinine bark is being revisited, even by such giants as the World Health Organization.


A recent use for quinine drugs has been for the treatment of muscle spasms and leg cramps. A 1998 study documented the beneficial effects of quinine for leg cramps, with tinnitus being the only documented side effect.

In 2002, a double-blind placebo study was undertaken in which 98 people with nocturnal leg cramps were given 400 mg of quinine daily for 2 weeks. The results stated that quinine administered at this dose effectively reduced the frequency, intensity, and pain of leg cramps without relevant side-effects.

This use has fueled the natural product market and more people are looking for natural quinine bark as an alternative to the synthesized prescription drugs for this purpose.

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sparkle7
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erva tosto -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/ervatostao.htm

excerpts-

Third-Party Research on Erva Tosto

All available third-party research on erva tosto can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on erva tosto is shown below:

Liver Protective Actions:
Rawat, A. K., et al. Hepatoprotective activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. rootsa popular Indian ethnomedicine." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56(1): 6166.
Chandan, B. K., et al. Boerhaavia diffusa: a study of its hepatoprotective activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 299307.

Diuretic & Kidney Protective Actions:
Rawat, A. K., et al. Hepatoprotective activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. rootsa popular Indian ethnomedicine." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56(1): 6166.
Devi, M. V., et al. Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on the diuretic activity of punarnava tablets." J. Res. Edu. Ind. Med. 1986; 5(1): 1112.
Mishra, J. P., et al. Studies on the effect of indigenous drug Boerhaavia diffusa Rom. on kidney regeneration." Indian J. Pharmacy 1980; 12: 59.
Mudgal, V. Studies on medicinal properties of Convolvulus pluricaulis and Boerhaavia diffusa. Planta Med. 1975; 28: 62.
Gaitonde, B. B., et al. Diuretic activity of punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa). Bull. Haffkine Inst. 1974; 2: 24.
Chowdhury, A., et al. Boerhaavia diffusa: effect on diuresis and some renal enzymes." Ann. Biochem. Exp. Med. 1955; 15: 11926.
Singh, R. P., et al. Recent approach in clinical and experimental evaluation of diuretic action of punarnava (B. diffusa) with special reference to nephrotic syndrome." J. Res. Edu. Ind. Med. 1955; 7(1): 29-35.

Anti-hemorrhaging Actions:
Barthwal, M., et al. Management of IUD-associated menorrhagia in female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)." Adv. Contracept. 1991; 7(1): 6776.
Barthwal, M., et al. Histologic studies on endometrium of menstruating monkeys wearing IUDS: comparative evaluation of drugs. Adv. Contracept. 1990; 6(2): 11324.

Antimicrobial Actions:
Hilou, A., et al. "In vivo antimalarial activities of extracts from Amaranthus spinosus L. and Boerhaavia erecta L. in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan; 103(2): 236-40.
Agrawal, A., et al. Inhibitory effect of the plant Boerhavia diffusa L. against the dermatophytic fungus Microsporum fulvum. J. Environ. Biol. 2004 Jul; 25(3): 307-11.
Agrawal, A., et al. Antifungal activity of Boerhavia diffusa against some dermatophytic species of Microsporum. Hindustan Antibiot. Bull. 2003 Feb-2004 Nov; 45-46(1-4): 1-4.
Perumal, S. R., et al. Ethnomedicinal plants from India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 66(2): 23540.
Qureshi S, et al. "In vitro evaluation of inhibitory nature of extracts of 18-plant species of Chhindwara against 3-keratinophilic fungi." Hindustan. Antibiot. Bull. 1997 Feb-Nov; 39(1-4): 56-60.
Sohni, Y., et al. The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 45(1): 4352.
Olukoya, D., et al. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants from Nigeria. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(1): 6972.
Awasthi, L. P., et al. "Effect of root extract from Boerhaavia diffusa L., containing an antiviral principle upon plaque formation of RNA bacteriophages." Zentralbl. Mikrobiol. 1986; 141(5): 415-9.
Aynehchi, Y. Screening of Iranian plants for antimicrobial activity. Acta Pharm. Suecica. 1982; 19(4): 3038.
Verma, H., et al. Antiviral activity of Boerhaavia diffusa root extract and physical properties of the virus inhibitor." Can. J. Bot. 1979; 57: 92632.

Anticonvulsant, Antispasmodic & Pain-Relieving Actions:
Borrelli, F., et al. "Spasmolytic effects of nonprenylated rotenoid constituents of Boerhaavia diffusa roots." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(6): 903-6.
Borrelli, F., et al. Isolation of new rotenoids from Boerhaavia diffusa and evaluation of their effect on intestinal motility. Planta Med. 2005; 71(10): 928-32.
Hiruma-Lima, C. A., et al. The juice of fresh leaves of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae) markedly reduces pain in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 71(12): 26774.
Akah, P., et al. Nigerian plants with anti-convulsant property. Fitoterapia 1993; 64(1): 4244.
Adesina, S. Anticonvulsant properties of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa. Q. J. Crude Drug Res. 1979; 17: 8486.
Dhar, M., et al. Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part I. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1968; 6: 23247.

Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
Leyon, P. V., et al. Inhibitory effect of Boerhaavia diffusa on experimental metastasis by B16F10 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice. Life Sci. 2005 Feb; 76(12): 1339-49.
Bharali, R., et al. Chemopreventive action of Boerhaavia diffusa on DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2003 Oct; 47(4): 459-64.
Mehrotra, S., et al. "Antilymphoproliferative activity of ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa roots." Exp. Mol. Pathol. 2002 Jun; 72(3): 236-42.

Antidiabetic & Hypoglycemic Actions:
Gholap, S., et al. Hypoglycaemic effects of some plant extracts are possibly mediated through inhibition in corticosteroid concentration. Pharmazie. 2004; 59(11): 876-8.
Satheesh, M. A., et al. Antioxidant effect of Boerhavia diffusa L. in tissues of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2004; 42(10): 989-92.
Pari, L., et al. Antidiabetic effect of Boerhavia diffusa: effect on serum and tissue lipids in experimental diabetes. J. Med. Food. 2004 Winter; 7(4): 472-6.
Pari, L., et al. Antidiabetic activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L.: effect on hepatic key enzymes in experimental diabetes. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Mar; 91(1): 109-13.

Hypotensive Actions:
Hansen, K., et al. In vitro screening of traditional medicines for anti-hypertensive effect based on inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)." Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 48(1): 4351.
Lami, N., et al. "Constituents of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L. III. Identification of Ca2+ channel antagonistic compound from the methanol extract." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1991; 39(6): 1551-5.
Ramabhimaiah, S., et al. Pharmacological investigations on the water soluble fraction of methanol extract of Boerhaavia diffusa root." Indian Drugs 1984; 21(8): 34344.

Immunomodulating & Antioxidant Actions:
Pandey, R., et al. Immunosuppressive properties of flavonoids isolated from Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2005; 5(3): 541-53.
Jagetia, G. C., et al. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: A preliminary study. J. Med. Food. 2004 Fall; 7(3): 343-8.
Satheesh, M. A., et al. Antioxidant effect of Boerhavia diffusa L. in tissues of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2004; 42(10): 989-92.
Mehrotra, S., et al. Immunomodulation by ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa roots." Int. Immunopharmacol. 2002; 7: 987-96.
Mehrotra, S., et al. "Antilymphoproliferative activity of ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa roots." Exp. Mol. Pathol. 2002 Jun; 72(3): 236-42.
Mungantiwarn, A. A., et al. Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Boerhaavia diffusa alkaloidal fraction. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999 May; 65(2): 125-31.

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TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

The roots of erva tosto have held an important place in herbal medicine in both Brazil and India for many years. G. L. Cruz, one of Brazils leading medical herbalists, reports erva tosto is a plant medicine of great importance, extraordinarily beneficial in the treatment of liver disorders.

It is employed in Brazilian herbal medicine to stimulate the emptying of the gallbladder, as a diuretic, for all types of liver disorders (including jaundice and hepatitis), gallbladder pain and stones, urinary tract disorders, renal disorders, kidney stones, cystitis, and nephritis.

In Ayurvedic herbal medicine systems in India, the roots are employed as a diuretic, digestive aid, laxative, and menstrual promoter and to treat gonorrhea, internal inflammation of all kinds, edema, jaundice, menstrual problems, anemia, and liver, gallbladder, and kidney disorders.

Throughout the tropics, erva tosto is considered an excellent natural remedy for guinea worms a bothersome tropical parasite that lays its eggs underneath the skin of humans and livestock; the eggs later hatch into larvae or worms that eat the underlying tissue.

The roots of the plant are normally softened in boiling water and then mashed up and applied as a paste or poultice to the affected areas to kill the worms and expel them from the skin.

---

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

Erva tosto has long been used in traditional medicine systems as a diuretic (to increase urination) for many types of kidney and urinary disorders. The diuretic action of erva tosto has been studied and validated by scientists in several studies. Researchers showed that low dosages (10300 mg per kg of body weight) produced strong diuretic effects, while higher dosages (more than 300 mg/kg) produced the opposite effectreducing urine output. Later research verified these diuretic and antidiuretic properties, as well as the beneficial kidney and renal effects of erva tosto in animals and humans. Research indicates that a root extract can increase urine output by as much as 100 percent in a twenty-four-hour period at dosages as low as 10 mg per kg of body weight.

The worldwide use of erva tosto for various liver complaints and disorders was validated in three separate studies. These indicated that a root extract provided beneficial effects in animals by protecting the liver from numerous introduced toxins and even repairing chemical-induced liver and kidney damage.

In other clinical studies with animals, erva tosto extracts demonstrated smooth muscle and skeletal muscle stimulant activities in frogs and guinea pigs; anti-inflammatory actions in rats; hypotensive actions in dogs as well as in vitro hypotensive actions; antispasmodic actions in frogs and guinea pigs; analgesic activities in mice; and antiamebic actions in rats.

In two studies with monkeys, a root extract was reported to reduce bleeding and uterine hemorrhaging commonly associated with wearing contraceptive IUDs.

The traditional use of erva tosto for convulsions was verified by scientists in two studies, demonstrating that a root extract provided anticonvulsant actions in mice. In vitro testing of erva tosto confirmed its antibacterial properties against gonorrhea (another traditional use), as well as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus.

It was also shown to possess antiviral actions against several viral plant pathogens.

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sparkle7
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epazote -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/epazote.htm

excerpts-

TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

In the Yucatan, indigenous Indian groups have long used epazote for intestinal parasites, asthma, excessive mucus, chorea (a type of rheumatic fever that affects the brain) and other nervous afflictions.

The Tikuna Indians in the Amazon use it to expel intestinal worms and as a mild laxative.

The Siona-Secoya and Kofn Indian tribes in South America also use epazote for intestinal worms (usually by taking one cup of a leaf decoction each morning before eating for three consecutive days).

The Kofn Indians also use the plant as a perfume-tying it to their arm for an 'aromatic' bracelet. (However, most Americans consider the smell of the plant quite strong and objectionable - calling it skunk-weed!)

Creoles use it as a worm remedy for children and a cold medicine for adults while the Waypi use the plant decoction for stomach upsets and internal hemorrhages caused by falls.

In Piura a leaf decoction is used to expel intestinal gas, as a mild laxative, as an insecticide, and as a natural remedy for cramps, gout, hemorrhoids, intestinal worms and parasites and nervous disorders.

Some indigenous tribes bathe in a decoction of epazote to reduce fever and will also throw a couple of freshly uprooted green plants onto their fires to drive mosquitoes and flies away.


In herbal medicine systems throughout Latin America epazote is a popular household remedy used to rid children and adults of intestinal parasites, worms and amebas.

The plant is also used in cooking - it is said to prevent intestinal gas if the leaves are cooked and/or eaten with beans and other common gas-forming foods. The leaves and seeds of epazote have long been used in Central and South American medicine as a vermifuge (to expel intestinal worms).

In Brazilian herbal medicine, it is considered an important remedy for worms (especially hookworms, round worms and tape worms) and is also used for coughs, asthma, bronchitis and other upper respiratory complaints; for angina, to relieve intestinal gas, to promote sweating and as a general digestive aid.

It is used for similar conditions in Peruvian herbal medicine today. Local people in the Amazon region in Peru also soak the plant in water for several days and use it as a topical arthritis remedy.

In other South American herbal medicine systems the plant is used for asthma, bronchitis, diarrhea, dysentery, and menstrual disorders. Externally it has been used as a wash for hemorrhoids, bruises, wounds, contusions and fractures.


The plant's ability to expel intestinal worms has been attributed to the essential oil of the seed and 'Oil of Chenopodium' has been used for several centuries worldwide as a worm remedy.

The oil was once in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia as a drug used against amebas, roundworms and hookworms. The therapeutic dose of the essential oil however does have other toxic effects, therefore it fell from favor as an internal remedy many years ago.

Intake of 10 mg of the oil has been known to cause cardiac disturbances, convulsions, respiratory disturbances, sleepiness, vomiting and weakness and even death.

---

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

A decoction and infusion of the plant was analyzed in vitro to determine if they had toxic effects. At various concentrations the extracts caused cellular aberrations in the test tube, indicating possible toxic effects.

However, in the 1970's the World Health Organization reported that a decoction of 20 g of leaves rapidly expelled parasites without any apparent side effects in humans.

In 1996 extracts from the leaves of epazote were given to 72 children and adults with intestinal parasitic infections. A stool analysis was performed before and eight days after treatment. On average, an antiparasitic efficacy was seen in 56% of cases.

With respect to the tested parasites, epazote leaf extract was 100% effective against the common intestinal parasites, Ancilostoma and Trichuris, and, 50% effective against Ascaris.


In a study in 2001, thirty children (ages 3-14 years) with intestinal roundworms were treated with epazote. Doses given were 1 ml of extract per kg of body weight for younger children (weighing less than 25 pounds), and 2 ml of extract per kg of body weight in older children.

One dose was given daily on an empty stomach for three days. Stool examinations were conducted before and 15 days after treatment. Disappearance of the ascaris eggs occurred in 86.7%, while the parasitic burden decreased in 59.5%.

In addition, this study also reported that epazote was 100% effective in eliminating the common human tapeworm (Hymenolepsis nana).


In other research epazote has been documented with toxic effects against snails. and was shown to have an in vitro toxic action against drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

In 2002, a U.S. patent was filed on a Chinese herbal combination containing epazote for the treatment of peptic ulcers. This combination (containing Chenopodium essential oil) was reported to inhibit stress-induced, as well as various chemical and bacteria-induced ulcer formation.

The most recent research has documented the anticancerous and antitumorous properties of epazote. In one study an extract of the entire plant of epazote showed the ability to kill human liver cancer cells in the test tube.

Another study reported that the essential oil of epazote (as well as its main chemical, ascaridole) showed strong antitumorous actions against numerous different cancerous tumor cells (including several multi-drug resistant tumor cell lines) in the test tube.

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sparkle7
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anamu -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/anamu.htm

excerpts-

Published Third-Party Research on Anamu


All available third-party research on anamu can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on anamu is shown below:

Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
Uruea, C., et al. "Petiveria alliacea extracts uses multiple mechanisms to inhibit growth of human and mouse tumoral cells." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2008 Nov 18; 8:60.
Williams, L., et al. "A critical review of the therapeutic potential of dibenzyl trisulphide isolated from Petiveria alliacea L (guinea hen weed, anamu)." West Indian Med. J. 2007 Jan; 56(1): 17-21.
An, H., et al. "Synthesis and anti-tumor evaluation of new trisulfide derivatives." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2006 Sep; 16(18): 4826-9.
Williams, L. A., et al. "In vitro anti-proliferation/cytotoxic activity of sixty natural products on the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with specific reference to dibenzyl trisulphide." West Indian Med. J. 2004 Sep; 53(4): 208-19.
Ruffa, M. J., et al. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. ; J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(3): 335-39.
Mata-Greenwood, E., et al. Discovery of novel inducers of cellular differentiation using HL-60 promyelocytic cells. Anticancer Res. 2001; 21(3B): 1763-70.
Rosner, H., et al. Disassembly of microtubules and inhibition of neurite outgrowth, neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and MAP kinase tyrosine dephosphorylation by dibenzyl trisulphide. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 2001; 1540(2): 166-77.
Jovicevic, L., et al. In vitro antiproliferative activity of Petiveria alliacea L. on several tumor cell lines. Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 105-06.
Rossi, V., et al. Antiproliferative effects of Petiveria alliacea on several tumor cell lines. Pharmacol. Res. Suppl. 1990; 22(2): 434.
Yan, R., et al. Astilbin selectively facilitates the apoptosis of interleukin-2-dependent phytohemaglutinin-activated Jurkat cells. Pharmacol. Res. 2001; 44(2): 135-39.
Weber, U. S., et al. Antitumor activities of coumarin, 7-hydroxy-coumarin and its glucuronide in several human tumor cell lines. Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. 1998; 99(2): 193-206.
Bassi, A. M., et al. Comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity and metabolism of four aldehydes in two hepatoma cell lines. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1997 Aug; 20(3): 173-87.

Immunostimulant & Antioxidant Actions:
Okada, Y., et al. "Antioxidant activity of the new thiosulfinate derivative, S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate, from Petiveria alliacea L." Org. Biomol. Chem. 2008 Mar 21; 6(6): 1097-102.
Queiroz, M. L., et al. Cytokine profile and natural killer cell activity in Listeria monocytogenes infected mice treated orally with Petiveria alliacea extract. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 2000 Aug; 22(3): 501-18.
Quadros, M. R., et al. Petiveria alliacea L. extract protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infectioneffects on bone marrow progenitor cells. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 1999 Feb; 21(1): 109-24.
Williams, L., et al. Immunomodulatory activities of Petiveria alliaceae L. Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(3): 251253.
Rossi, V., Effects of Petiveria alliacea L. on cell immunity. Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 111-12.
Marini, S., Effects of Petiveria alliacea L. on cytokine production and natural killer cell activity. Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 107-08.

Anti-inflammatory & Pain-Relieving Actions:
Gomes, P. B., et al. Study of antinociceptive effect of isolated fractions from Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 28(1): 42-6.
Lopes-Martins, R. A., et al. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a crude extract of Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae). Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(3): 245-48.
Dunstan, C. A., et al. Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Jun; 57(1): 35-56.
Germano, D., et al. Pharmacological assay of Petiveria alliaceae. Oral anti-inflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a hydro alcoholic root extract. Fitoterapia. 1993; 64(5): 459-467.
Germano, D. H., et al. Topical anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity of Petiveria alliaceae. Fitoterapia. 1993; 64(5): 459-67.
de Lima, T. C., et al. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (Guine) in animals. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1991; 86 Suppl 2: 153-58.
Di Stasi, L. C., et al. Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sa Paulo. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 24(2/3): 20511.

Wound Healing Actions:
Schmidt, C., et al. "Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr 21; 122(3): 523-32.

Antimicrobial & Antiparasitic Actions:
Kim, S., et al. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
Kubec, R., et al. The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea. Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63(1): 37-40.
Ruffa, M. J., et al. Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 2002; 48(3): 144-47.
Benevides, P. J., et al. Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L. Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 743-7.
Caceres, A., et al. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
Berger, I., et al. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Hoyos, L., et al. Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae (Anamu). Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
Caceres, A., et al. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. I. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
Misas, C.A.J., et al. The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III. Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 2127.
Von Szczepanski, C., et al. Isolation, structure elucidation and synthesis of an antimicrobial substance from Petiveria alliacea. Arzneim-Forsch 1972; 22: 1975.
Feng, P., et al. Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1964; 16: 115.

Sedative & Anticonvulsant Actions:
Gomes, F., et al. "Central effects of isolated fractions from the root of Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Nov 20; 120(2): 209-14.

Hypoglycemic Actions:
Lans, C. A. "Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus." J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine. 2006 Oct 13; 2: 45.
Lores, R. I., et al. Petiveria alliaceae L. (anamu). Study of the hypoglycemic effect. Med. Interne. 1990; 28(4): 34752.

Insecticidal Actions:
Rosado-Aguilar, J., et al. "Acaricidal activity of extracts from Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: ixodidae) Vet. Parasitol. 2009 Dec 2.

Non-Toxic Actions:
Garca-Gonzlez, M., et al. "Subchronic and acute preclinic toxicity and some pharmacological effects of the water extract from leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae)." Rev. Biol. Trop. 2006 Dec; 54(4): 1323-6.

Chemical Constituents Identified:
Musah, R., et al. "Discovery and characterization of a novel lachrymatory factor synthase in Petiveria alliacea and its influence on alliinase-mediated formation of biologically active organosulfur compounds." Plant Physiol. 2009 Nov; 151(3): 1294-303.
Musah, R., et al. "Studies of a novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase from Petiveria alliacea: the first heteromeric alliinase. Plant Physiol. 2009 Nov; 151(3): 1304-16.

-----

TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

In the Amazon rainforest, anamu is used as part of an herbal bath against witchcraft by the Indians and local jungle herbal healers called curanderos.

The Ka'apor Indians call it mikur-ka'a (which means opossum herb) and use it for both medicine and magic.

The Caribs in Guatemala crush the root and inhale it for sinusitis, and the Ese'Ejas Indians in the Peruvian Amazon prepare a leaf infusion for colds and flu. The Garifuna indigenous people in Nicaragua also employ a leaf infusion or decoction for colds, coughs, and aches and pains, as well as for magic rituals.

The root is thought to be more powerful than the leaves. It is considered a pain reliever and is often used in the rainforest in topical remedies for the skin. Other indigenous Indian groups beat the leaves into a paste and use it externally for headache, rheumatic pain, and other types of pain. This same jungle remedy is also used as an insecticide.


Anamu has a long history in herbal medicine in all of the tropical countries where it grows. In Brazilian herbal medicine, it is considered an antispasmodic, diuretic, menstrual promoter, stimulant, and sweat promoter.

Herbalists and natural health practitioners there use anamu for edema, arthritis, malaria, rheumatism, and poor memory, and as a topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory for skin afflictions.

Throughout Central America, women use anamu to relieve birthing pains and facilitate easy childbirth as well as to induce abortions.

In Guatemalan herbal medicine, the plant is called apacn and a leaf decoction is taken internally for digestive ailments and sluggish digestion, flatulence, and fever. A leaf decoction is also used externally as an analgesic for muscular pain and for skin diseases.

Anamu is commonly used in big cities and towns in South and Central America as a natural remedy to treat colds, coughs, influenza, respiratory and pulmonary infections, and cancer, and to support the immune system.

In Cuba, herbalists decoct the whole plant and use it to treat cancer and diabetes, and as an anti-inflammatory and abortive.

---


BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

The research published on anamu (and the plant chemicals described above) reveals that it has a broad range of therapeutic properties, including antileukemic, antitumorous, and anticancerous activities against several types of cancer cells.

In an in vitro study by Italian researchers in 1990, water extracts and ethanol extracts of anamu retarded the growth of leukemia cells and several other strains of cancerous tumor cells. Three years later, the researchers followed up with another study, which showed that the same extracts had a cytotoxic effect, actually killing some of these cancer cells, rather than just retarding their growth.

This study indicated that whole herb water extracts of anamu were toxic to leukemia and lymphoma cancer cells but only inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells. More recently, a study published in 2002 documented an in vitro toxic effect against a liver cancer cell line; another in vitro study in 2001 reported that anamu retarded the growth of brain cancer cells.

A German study documenting anamu's activity against brain cancer cells related its actions to the sulfur compounds found in the plant.


In addition to its documented anticancerous properties, anamu has also been found in both in vivo and in vitro studies to be an immunostimulant. In a 1993 study with mice, a water extract stimulated immune cell production (lymphocytes and Interleukin II).

In the same year, another study with mice demonstrated that an anamu extract increased natural killer cell activity by 100% and stimulated the production of even more types of immune cells (Interferon, Interleukin II, and Interleukin 4). Additional research from 1997 to 2001 further substantiated anamu's immunostimulant actions in humans and animals.


Anamu's traditional use as a remedy for arthritis and rheumatism has been validated by clinical research confirming its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties. One research group in Sweden reported that anamu possesses cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitory actions.

COX-1 inhibitors are a new (and highly profitable) class of arthritis drugs being sold today by pharmaceutical companies. Another research group in Brazil documented significant anti-inflammatory effects in rats using various models, and researchers in 2002 noted a significant pain-relieving effect in rats.

The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects were even verified when an ethanol extract was applied topically in rats, again validating traditional use.


Many clinical reports and studies document that anamu shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties against numerous strains of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeast. In a 2002 study, anamu extracts inhibited the replication of the bovine diarrhea virus; this is a test model for hepatitis C virus.

A Cuban research group documented anamu's antimicrobial properties in vitro against numerous pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Shigella and, interestingly enough, their crude water extracts performed better than any of the alcohol extracts.

A German group documented good activity against several bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several strains of fungi, and Candida Anamu's antifungal properties were documented by one research group in 1991, and again by a separate research group in 2001.

Its antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by researchers from Guatemala and Austria who, in separate studies in 1998, confirmed its activity in vitro and in vivo studies against several strains of protozoa, bacteria, and fungi.


While anamu has not been used widely employed for diabetes, it has been clinically documented to have hypoglycemic actions. Researchers in 1990 demonstrated the in vivo hypoglycemic effect of anamu, showing that anamu decreased blood sugar levels by more than 60% one hour after administration to mice.

This finding reflects herbal medicine practice in Cuba where anamu has been used as an herbal aid for diabetes for many years.

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sparkle7
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graviola -

http://rainforest-database.com/plants/graviola.htm

excerpts-

Third-Party Published Research on Graviola

All available third-party documentation and research on graviola be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on graviola is shown below:
Anticancerous & Antitumor Actions:
Kojima, N. Systematic synthesis of antitumor Annonaceous acetogenins Yakugaku Zasshi. 2004; 124(10): 673-81.
Tormo, J. R., et al. In vitro antitumor structure-activity relationships of threo/trans/threo mono-tetrahydro-furanic acetogenins: Correlations with their inhibition of mitochondrial complex I. Oncol. Res. 2003; 14(3): 147-54.
Yuan, S. S., et al. Annonacin, a mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin, arrests cancer cells at the G1 phase and causes cytotoxicity in a Bax- and caspase-3-related pathway. Life Sci. 2003 May: 72(25): 2853-61.
Liaw, C. C., et al. New cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata. J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(4): 470-75
Gonzalez-Coloma, A., et al. Selective action of acetogenin mitochondrial complex I inhibitors. Z. Naturforsch. 2002; 57(11-12): 1028-34.
Chang, F. R., et al. Novel cytotoxic Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata. J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(7): 925-31.
Jaramillo, M. C., et al. Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp. Fitoterapia. 2000; 71 (2): 183-6.
Betancur-Galvis, L., et al. Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1999; 94(4): 531-35.
Kim, G. S., et al. Muricoreacin and murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, from the leaves of Annona muricata. Phytochemistry. 1998; 49(2): 565-71.
Kim, G. S., et al. Two new mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins, annomuricin E and muricapentocin, from the leaves of Annona muricata. J. Nat. Prod. 1998; 61(4): 432-36.
Nicolas, H., et al. Structure-activity relationships of diverse Annonaceous acetogenins against multidrug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) cells. J. Med. Chem. 1997; 40(13): 2102-6.
Zeng, L., et al. Five new monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata. J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(11): 1035-42.
Wu, F. E., et al. Two new cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricins A and B, from the leaves of Annona muricata. J. Nat. Prod. 1995; 58(6): 830-36.
Oberlies, N. H., et al. Tumor cell growth inhibition by several Annonaceous acetogenins in an in vitro disk diffusion assay. Cancer Lett. 1995; 96(1): 55-62.
Wu, F. E., et al. Additional bioactive acetogenins, annomutacin and (2,4-trans and cis)-10R-annonacin-A-ones, from the leaves of Annona muricata. J. Nat. Prod. 1995; 58(9): 1430-37.
Wu, F. E., et al. New bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricin C and muricatocin C, from the leaves of Annona muricata. J. Nat. Prod. 1995; 58(6): 909-5.
Wu, F. E., et al. Muricatocins A and B, two new bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata. J. Nat. Prod. 1995; 58(6): 902-8.
Sundarrao, K., et al. Preliminary screening of antibacterial and antitumor activities of Papua New Guinean native medicinal plants. Int. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(1): 3-6.

Antimicrobial Actions:
Takahashi, J.A., et al. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian Annonaceae plants. Nat. Prod. Res. 2006; 20(1): 21-6.
Betancur-Galvis, L., et al. Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1999; 94(4): 531-35.
Antoun, M. D., et al. "Evaluation of the flora of Puerto Rico for in vitro cytotoxic and anti-HIV activities." Pharmaceutical Biol. 1999; 37(4): 277-280.
Padma, P., et al. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 61(1): 813.
Sundarrao, K., et al. Preliminary screening of antibacterial and antitumor activities of Papua New Guinean native medicinal plants. Int. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(1): 36.
Misas, C. A. J., et al. Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. IV. Rev. Cubana Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 2935.

Antidepressant & Antistress Actions:
Padma, P., et al. Effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides on brain neurotransmitters and enzyme monoamine oxidase following cold immobilization stress. J. Natural Remedies 2001; 1(2): 14446.
Hasrat, J. A., et al. Screening of medicinal plants from Suriname for 5-HT 1A ligands: Bioactive isoquinoline alkaloids from the fruit of Annona muricata. Phytomedicine. 1997; 4(20: 133-140.
Padma, P., et al. Effect of alcohol extract of Annona muricata on cold immobilization stress induced tissue lipid peroxidation. Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(4): 326-327.
Hasrat, J. A., et al. Isoquinoline derivatives isolated from the fruit of Annona muricata as 5-HTergic 5-HT1A receptor agonists in rats: unexploited antidepressive (lead) products. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1997; 49(11): 114549.

Antiparasitic, Antimalarial, & Insecticidal Actions:
Luna, J. S., et al. Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides. Nat. Prod. Res. 2006; 20(3): 253-7.
Jaramillo, M. C., et al. Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp. Fitoterapia. 2000; 71(2): 1836.
Alali, F. Q., et al. Annonaceous acetogenins as natural pesticides; potent toxicity against insecticide-susceptible and resistant German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 1998; 91(3): 641-9.
Antoun, M. D., et al. "Screening of the flora of Puerto Rico for potential antimalarial bioactives. Int. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(4): 25558.
Heinrich, M., et al. Parasitological and microbiological evaluation of Mixe Indian medicinal plants (Mexico). J. Ethnopharmacol. 1992; 36(1): 815.
Bories, C., et al. Antiparasitic activity of Annona muricata and Annona cherimolia seeds. Planta Med. 1991; 57(5): 43436.
Gbeassor, M., et al. In vitro antimalarial activity of six medicinal plants. Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(3): 11517.
Tattersfield, F., et al. The insecticidal properties of certain species of Annona and an Indian strain of Mundulea sericea (Supli). Ann. Appl. Biol. 1940; 27: 26273.

Anticonvulsant, Antispasmodic, & Smooth Muscle Relaxant Actions:
Ngouemo, P., et al. Effects of ethanol extract of Annona muricata on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsive seizures in mice. Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(3): 24345.
Feng, P. C., et al. Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1962; 14: 55661.

Hypotensive & Cardiodepressant Actions
Carbajal, D., et al. Pharmacological screening of plant decoctions commonly used in Cuban folk medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 33(1/2): 214.
Feng, P. C., et al. Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1962; 14: 55661.
Meyer, T. M. The alkaloids of Annona muricata. Ing. Ned. Indie. 1941; 8(6): 64.

-----

Tribal & Herbal Medicine Uses

All parts of the graviola tree are used in natural medicine in the tropics, including the bark, leaves, roots, fruit, and fruit seeds. Different properties and uses are attributed to the different parts of the tree.

Generally, the fruit and fruit juice are taken for worms and parasites, to cool fevers, to increase mother's milk after childbirth, and as an astringent for diarrhea and dysentery.

The crushed seeds are used against internal and external parasites, head lice, and worms.

The bark, leaves, and roots are considered sedative, antispasmodic, hypotensive, and nervine, and a tea is made for various disorders toward those effects.


Graviola has a long, rich history of use in herbal medicine as well as a lengthy recorded indigenous use. In the Peruvian Andes, a leaf tea is used for catarrh (inflammation of mucous membranes) and the crushed seed is used to kill parasites.

In the Peruvian Amazon the bark, roots, and leaves are used for diabetes and as a sedative and antispasmodic. Indigenous tribes in Guyana use a leaf and/or bark tea as a sedative and heart tonic.

In the Brazilian Amazon a leaf tea is used for liver problems, and the oil of the leaves and unripe fruit is mixed with olive oil and used externally for neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritis pain.

In Jamaica, Haiti, and the West Indies the fruit and/or fruit juice is used for fevers, parasites and diarrhea; the bark or leaf is used as an antispasmodic, sedative, and nervine for heart conditions, coughs, flu, difficult childbirth, asthma, hypertension, and parasites.

---

Biological Activites and Clinical Research

In an 1976 plant screening program by the National Cancer Institute, graviola leaves and stem showed active toxicity against cancer cells and researchers have been following up on these findings since.

Thus far, specific acetogenins in graviola and/or extracts of graviola have been reported to be selectively toxic in vitro to these types of tumor cells: lung carcinoma cell lines; human breast solid tumor lines; prostate adenocarcinoma; pancreatic carcinoma cell lines; colon adenocarcinoma cell lines; liver cancer cell lines; human lymphoma cell lines; and multi-drug resistant human breast adenocarcinoma.

Researchers in Taiwan reported in 2003 that the main graviola acetogenin, annonacin, was highly toxic to ovarian, cervical, breast, bladder and skin cancer cell lines at very low dosages saying; . . . annonacin is a promising anti-cancer agent and worthy of further animal studies and, we would hope, clinical trials.


An interesting in vivo study was published in March of 2002 by researchers in Japan, who were studying various acetogenins found in several species of plants. They inoculated mice with lung cancer cells.

One third received nothing (the control group), one third received the chemotherapy drug adriamycin, and one third received the main graviola acetogenin, annonacin (at a dosage of 10 mg/kg).

At the end of two weeks, five of the six in the untreated control group were still alive and lung tumor sizes were then measured. The adriamycin group showed a 54.6% reduction of tumor mass over the control groupbut 50% of the animals had died from toxicity (three of six).

The mice receiving annonacin were all still alive, and the tumors were inhibited by 57.9%slightly better than adriamycinand without toxicity. This led the researchers to summarize; This suggested that annonacin was less toxic in mice. On considering the antitumor activity and toxicity, annonacin might be used as a lead to develop a potential anticancer agent.

---

Contraindications:

Graviola has demonstrated uterine stimulant activity in an animal study (rats) and should therefore not be used during pregnancy.

Graviola has demonstrated hypotensive, vasodilator, and cardiodepressant activities in animal studies and is contraindicated for people with low blood pressure. People taking antihypertensive drugs should check with their doctors before taking graviola and monitor their blood pressure accordingly (as medications may need adjusting).

Graviola has demonstrated significant in vitro antimicrobial properties. Chronic, long-term use of this plant may lead to die-off of friendly bacteria in the digestive tract due to its antimicrobial properties. Supplementing the diet with probiotics and digestive enzymes is advisable if this plant is used for longer than 30 days.

Graviola has demonstrated emetic properties in one animal study with pigs. Large single dosages may cause nausea or vomiting. Reduce the usage accordingly if this occurs.

One study with rats given a stem-bark extract intragastrically (at 100 mg/kg) reported an increase in dopamine, norepinephrine, and monomine oxidase activity, as well as a inhibition of serotonin release in stress-induced rats.

Alcohol extracts of graviola leaf showed no toxicity or side effects in mice at 100 mg/kg; however, at a dosage of 300 mg/kg, a reduction in explorative behavior and mild abdominal constrictions was observed. If sedation or sleepiness occurs, reduce the amount used.

Drug Interactions: None have been reported; however, graviola may potentiate antihypertensive and cardiac depressant drugs. It may potentiate antidepressant drugs and interfere with MAO-inhibitor drugs.

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surprise
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Thanks for all the info!

So how do you feel it's working for you?

--------------------
Lyme positive PCR blood, and
positive Bartonella henselae Igenex, 2011.
low positive Fry biofilm test, 2012.
Update 7/16- After extensive treatments,
doing okay!

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annxyzz
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Excellent info! I will keep this in mind ! I am amazed at your and Keebler's research skills . You both post such beneficial articles that I have profited from immensely .

This sounds like a very well researched group of herbs with a long history of paraite use . Is it an expensive formulation ?

Are you planning on going back on parasite drugs eventually ? Have you known anyone else who took this product ? Sounds like it may be good for babs and a varirty of parasites .

Thank you !

--------------------
annxyzz

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sparkle7
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It seems pretty strong. I've been taking it about a month. I felt an increase in pain in my ribs & hip joints which is kind of new (kind of a herx, I suppose).

Intuitively, it seems like it's rooting out the bad stuff... I know that's kind of vague but that's what it feels like it's doing. I "feel" like I have to stay on it for a while - but this is just my intuitive interpretation.

The Parastroy took a while to work when I did it before - so, I'm going to continue with it for now. It says to take it for a minimum of 30-40 days.

I dowse the supplements, drugs I take - & it's a "yes" for now.

It's about $40 + a bottle with shipping - 120 caps - 4 a day (lasts about a month). Not inexpensive but it may be worth it.

I was thinking about checking into the Auravedic anti-parasite herbs, too. This one seems to be pretty potent for now, though.

Someone who was posting here a while ago took it for babs & said it was good.

I have to dowse the hosre paste. I kind of favor herbs sice it seems like this is a long term project - but I'll check the drugs, too. In the past when I dowsed them - it's usually one or the other - not both together. I never tried dowsing ivermectin with atremesia.

Maybe I'll try dowsing them again tomorrow to see what comes up. I'd like to give the A-P a descent run rather than switching them up for the moment. I guess that's why I wanted to investigate further what was in the A-P to logically acknowledge that it was "bonafied" for getting the job done.

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pamoisondelune
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I used to take the Raintree Amazon A-P pills 3x/day with food, together with other herbals, for Babesia.

I don't take it now; instead i run my GB4000 rife machine for Babesia.

I still have some plain Amargo. I take that occasionally, maybe twice a year, 1/4 tsp on empty stomach.

PollyPolygonum

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sparkle7
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Did the A-P help with your babesia, pamoisondelune? I don't think I have babesia but it seems to be doing something. I'm not sure how long to take it for or if it's good to take breaks.

Most of the herbs seem safe but one of the herbs says it's OK to take for 90 days but it has a toxicity warning. It seems OK to take this for 90 days.

I'm just wondering what others may have experienced with this formula.

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Keebler
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-
As long as the dose is not exceeded, it is safe.
Although, other things you may be taking should also be considered in the full load or interactions for your body.

I've used other formulas form Rain-Tree, have read extensively from their site and have her book.

All the way around, excellent. Of course, I hope you get some specific replies about this specific formula from those who have used it.

I know someone here a while back said it worked very well for them but I can't find that in a search as I search only for the topic line and it must not have been the heading.

You might search with the "entire post" feature.
-

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sparkle7
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Thanks Keebler.

re: I know someone here a while back said it worked very well for them but I can't find that in a search as I search only for the topic line and it must not have been the heading.

--

I think this was pamoisondelune.

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