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» LymeNet Flash » Questions and Discussion » Medical Questions » New York Times New Suspect in Bacterial Resistance: Amalgams

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Author Topic: New York Times New Suspect in Bacterial Resistance: Amalgams
TerryK
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Article today in the NY times

Edited: my mistake, the article is not from today. I'm looking for newer studies.

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9F0CE0DF173FF934A15757C0A965958260
New Suspect In Bacterial Resistance: Amalgam
Print Single-Page Save

By GINA KOLATA
Published: April 27, 1993
WHEN penicillin first became used as a drug, it was a sure-fire means of massacring bacteria. But the microorganisms have fought back with a vengeance. As many as half of all bacteria that cause urinary tract infections, for example, are now impervious to penicillin and other common antibiotics because the bacteria have developed resistance.

The cause of the development of resistance is something of a mystery but microbiologists have now come up with a surprising new suspect: dental fillings.

Amalgam, the dark gray material that dentists commonly use to fill cavities in molar teeth, is 50 percent mercury, which, studies have shown, slowly leaches out of the fillings.

The possible connection with antibiotic resistance comes about because genes that protect bacteria against mercury poisoning are often bundled together with genes that make the bacteria resistant to antibiotics. So if mercury from fillings elicits and maintains a population of bacteria that are resistant to mercury, it might also elicit and maintain bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

In a study published in the current issue of the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Dr. Anne O. Summers of the University of Georgia and her colleagues show that in monkeys at least, that is what happens. When the researchers put fillings into the molars of six monkeys, they found that within five weeks bacteria in the monkeys' intestines became resistant not only to mercury but also to commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline.

"It is a provocative and intriguing finding," said Dr. George Jacoby of Harvard Medical School. Dr. Jacoby, an expert on antibiotic resistant bacteria, added that although overuse of antibiotics was undoubtedly a major cause of resistant bacteria, the new study indicated that "it could be that dental fillings are also inadvertently contributing to the problem."

Others agreed. "The public health implications are enormous," said Dr. Stanley Opella, a chemist at the University of Pennsylvania who is studying mercury resistance in bacteria. But he cautioned that although "the chances are good" that fillings generate antibiotic-resistant bacteria, "it is still a basic research finding that needs to be checked out."

The American Dental Association, responding to news of the study, said that amalgam fillings were safe and that a study concentrating on animals "cannot be viewed as affecting humans."

The new study "is very interesting research," said Dr. Terry Donovan, of the dental association's council on dental materials, but he added that the findings were far from conclusive. "I don't think anyone should be concerned at the present time," he said.

Dr. Summers has worked on the genetics and molecular biology of mercury resistance for 20 years. She and others discovered years ago that people commonly had mercury-resistant bacteria in their intestines. But they had been plagued by one question: Where did the mercury come from? Path of Mercury in Body

A variety of studies, starting in the 1970's, had traced the path that mercury takes in the body. In combination with other studies showing that mercury vapor can seep out of dental fillings, they presented a picture of how mercury might enter the intestines.

The process begins when mercury vapor from dental fillings is inhaled into the lungs and enters the bloodstream. Cells then transform it into a mercury ion, which is then transported to the intestines for excretion in the feces. In the intestines, it encounters mercury-resistant bacteria, which -- to protect themselves -- convert the ionic mercury back into a mercury vapor.

Although this offered a plausible explanation of why mercury-resistant bacteria are so common in human intestines, Dr. Summers said, she and her colleagues were puzzled by the persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in people who had not recently taken antibiotics.

Dr. Stuart B. Levy, a microbiologist at the Tufts University School of Medicine who studies antibiotic resistance, had studied the intestinal bacteria in a group of more than 600 people, two-thirds of whom had not taken antibiotics within two weeks. He found that more than 60 percent of the entire group had a large percentage of intestinal bacteria that were resistant to antibiotics, including ampicillin and tetracycline.

In the study just published, Dr. Levy collaborated with Dr. Summers and others, sampling oral and fecal bacteria of two types, the Enterobacteriaceae, a group that includes the common rod-shaped E. coli bacteria, and the enterococci, a group that includes the round streptococci.

The study found that in the five weeks before the monkeys had their teeth filled, on average, 1 percent of the oral Enterobacteriaceae were resistant to antibiotics. Afterwards, 13 percent were resistant and remained resistant even after the fillings were subsequently removed and an additional two months had gone by.

About 9 percent of the intestinal Enterobacteriacae were resistant to antibiotics before the monkeys received fillings. Afterward, up to 70 percent were resistant. When the fillings were removed, the percentage of resistant intestinal bacteria fell to 12 percent.

The next step, Dr. Summers said, will be to examine human oral and intestinal bacteria. She and her colleagues will be sampling bacteria in people before and after they get new amalgam fillings.

Dr. Levy thinks that if fillings turn out to be significant contributors to antibiotic resistance in humans, dentists may want to stop using amalgams.

But Dr. Donovan said that is not so easy. Although fillings can also be made of gold, a composite resin, or porcelain, he said, "any alternative to amalgam is considerably more expensive and probably doesn't last as long, with the exception of gold."

[ 13. July 2006, 10:02 PM: Message edited by: TerryK ]

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mycoplasma1
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Wow!

Good find.

Chris

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LYMESCIENCE
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Yeah, you get an A+ from me. Totally kick *** find!
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monkeyshines
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Wow, that makes me think I should try abx again now that I've had my amalgams out. They (abx) haven't done anything for me to date.

I'm confused by the date, though. The NYT masthead says today's date, but on the article itself it says published April 27, 1993 (not that that makes it any less valid).

monkeyshines

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johnnyb
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Cool find!
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JRWagner
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The fact that this is 13 years old and has been disproven by further studies means nothing???

In science 13 years is a lifetime many times over.

Amalgams are safe...if they were not, MILLIONS of people would be sick...they are not...I know MANY Dentists, some retired, who have had absolutely no problem with Amalgams.

Studies must be replicable to be valid...

Studies must stand up to peer rview to be valid.

Studies that are old news are just that.

The sky is not falling. There is NOTHING better that amalgam for large fillings, and composites are toxic and mush weaker that amalgams.

Brush and floss and stop worrying!

Peace, love and wellness,
JRW

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TerryK
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You are right monkeyshines - I was looking at the wrong date on the page.

Aside from environmental studies on polluted areas, I wonder what other, more recent studies have been done?

I'm researching this right now since I'm going to start metal chelation. I'll post anything else that seems pertinent as I find it.

Thanks,
Terry

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JRWagner
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This is the REAL NY Times Health page for today:

http://www.nytimes.com/pages/health/index.html

FYI...many studies have been done that show Mercury does NOT effect learning, etc., in children, as the doomsayers would have you believe.

Yes, in VERY high levels, Mercury can be harmful to the DEVELOPING fetus, but these levels are not readily reached.

Don't worry, be happy!

JRW

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henson2
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Interesting -- thanks!
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TerryK
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Hello JR,
That *is* a real NY times article. As I've already said, I made a mistake about the date, I was looking at the date in the header of the page.

I appreciate you telling me not to worry however I have high levels of lead and much exposure to lead as a child since my father had his gunsmith shop in our house. Because of that I'm doing research. I need to do this research and I feel there are others on this list that are interested in metals and bacteria as well so I will be posting anything that I find that I think may be useful.

I like to make my own decisions based on the information available. It's entirely possible that the information in this article has been debunked. I am looking for evidence of the studies you mention. I'd love to review your resources so perhaps you can post a link?

Here is a source that say's that metals *do* cause some bacteria to become resistant. This is environmental bacteria, not in humans but it's not too far of a stretch to think that it occurs in humans, especially in light of the info in the article from the NY times.

Go to the link to read the whole article
http://www.uga.edu/srel/Fact_Sheets/microbial_ecology.htm
Use of bacteria as indicators of industrial pollution and cleanup
...For example, one result of metal pollution is an increase in the
numbers and kinds of metal-resistant bacteria. The genes that code
for metal resistance are often carried on plasmids, or small mobile
pieces of DNA. Coincidentally, these same plasmids often carry genes
that confer antibiotic resistance. In a survey of bacterial
assemblages collected from Four Mile Creek on the SRS, we found that:

highest levels of antibiotic resistance were found in bacteria in a
tributary stream that drains Central Shops and C-Reactor,
there may be significant industrial contamination in this tributary
but not in the main stream channel, and
it appears that antibiotic resistance may be a good indicator of
level of contamination and thus need for cleanup.
Terry

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TerryK
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In 2004, University College in London seems to think that mercury amalgams can lead to abx resistance. Sorry I don't have the whole article but they do state this in their opening statement.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15907536&query_hl=3&itool=pubmed_docsum

Linkage of a novel mercury resistance operon with streptomycin resistance on a conjugative plasmid in Enterococcus faecium.

Davis IJ, Roberts AP, Ready D, Richards H, Wilson M, Mullany P.

Division of Microbial Diseases, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, 256 Gray's Inn Road, London, WC1X 8LD, UK.

It has been shown that the mercury in dental amalgam and other environmental sources can select for mercury resistant bacteria and that this can lead to an increase in resistance to antibiotics. To understand more about this linkage we have investigated the genetic basis for mercury and antibiotic resistance in a variety of oral bacteria. In this study we have cloned and sequenced the mer operon from an Enterococcus faecium strain which was resistant to mercury, tetracycline, and streptomycin. This strain was isolated, in a previous investigation, from a cynomolgus monkey post-installation of amalgam fillings. The mer operon was contained within a putative transposon (Tnmer1) of the ISL3 family. This element was located on a streptomycin resistant plasmid, pPPM1000, which shares homology with pRE25.

PMID: 15907536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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TerryK
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Another one older than the last one. This applies to oral bacteria whereas the monkey study applied to intestinal bacteria.


: Microb Drug Resist. 2003 Spring;9(1):93-7. Related Articles, Links

Effect of restoration of children's teeth with mercury amalgam on the prevalence of mercury- and antibiotic-resistant oral bacteria.

Pike R, Lucas V, Petrie A, Roberts G, Stapleton P, Rowbury R, Richards H, Mullany P, Wilson M.

Department of Microbiology, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, London WC1X 8LD.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether placement of mercury amalgam restorations in children's teeth induces an increase in oral bacteria resistant to mercury, penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, or tetracycline. Dental plaque and saliva samples from 16 children without mercury amalgam restorations were screened for bacteria resistant to mercury or to one of the antibiotics prior to, and 1 month after, placement of the amalgam restoration. Following amalgam placement, there was no significant increase in the number of children harboring bacteria resistant to mercury, penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, or tetracycline; neither was there an increase in the proportions of such organisms. This study has shown that the presence of mercury restorations in children's teeth has little effect on the prevalence of mercury- or antibiotic-resistant oral bacteria.

PMID: 12705688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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TerryK
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Entrez PubMed

Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2000 Jan-Jun;59(1-2):71-9. Related Articles, Links


Mercury resistance among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli.

Poiata A, Badicut I, Indres M, Biro M, Buiuc D.

University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Microbiology Dept., Iasi, Romania.

The use of organomercurials in liquid detergents and disinfectants promoted resistance to mercury among bacteria. Dental amalgam and industries using mercury are the main source of human exposure to mercury vapor. Release of mercury from dental amalgam contributes to the enrichment of the intestinal flora with mercury resistance plasmids which may be associated with antibiotic resistance. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of E. coli strains resistant to mercury and other antimicrobial agents currently used in therapy. The bacterial mercury and ampicillin, cephalexin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistance was tested against 363 E. coli strains obtained from faeces and urine between 1999-2000. According to the guidelines suggested by NCCLS (1998), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined on Mueller-Hinton agar, using the dilution technique with an inoculum of about 10(5) CFU. The MICs were read after 18 h incubation at 37 degrees C as the lowest concentration that inhibited the development of visible growth. Plasmids in enterobacteria may carry genes encoding resistance to both mercury and antibiotics. Among the tested E. coli strains, mercury resistance rose to 29.2%. Mercury resistance in E. coli is significantly linked to multiresistance to antimicrobial agents. Between 91.5-23.6 of mercury chloride resistant isolates were also resistant to the tested antibiotics. The increased use of non antibiotic antimicrobial agents is a possible selection factor for antibiotic-resistant strains in clinical and domestic environments.

PMID: 11845478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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GiGi
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Yes, the earth is round!

References 1 to 891 can be viewed at www.neuraltherapy.com/articles/ A comprehensive......

I thought I would show here some more of the published science on mercury in the human body

F. References
and recommended reading about mercury from dental fillings and related issues.

The references for chlorella, CGF, Fish oil, cilantro, garlic, ART, APN and others can be obtained from the American Academy of Neural Therapy: [email protected] and at www.neuraltherapy.com

892 Carlson, J., Larsen, J.T., and Edlund, M.-B.: Peptostreptococcus micros has a uniquely high capacity to form hydrogen sulfide from glutathione. Oral Microbiol. Immunol., 8: 42-45, 1993

893 Debelian, G.J., Olsen, I., and Tronstad, L.: Systemic diseases caused by oral microorganisms. Endod. Dent. Traumatol., 10: 57-65, 1994

894 De Boever, E.H., De Uzeda, M., and Loesche, W.J.: Relationship between volatile sulfur compounds, BANA-hydrolyzing bacteria and gingival health in patients with and without complaints of moral malodour. J. Clin. Dent., 4: 114-119, 1994

895 Duhr, E.F., Pendergrass, J.C., Slevin, J.T., and Haley, B.E.: HgEDTA complex inhibits GTP interactions with the E-site of the brain -tubulin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 122: 273-280, 1993

896 Giuliana, G., Ammatuna, P., Pizzo, G., Capone, F., and D'Angelo, M.: Occurrence of invading bacteria in radicular dentin of periodontally diseased teeth: microbiological findings. J. Clin. Periodonto., 24: 478-485, 1997

897 Granlundt-Edstedt, M., Johannson, E., Claesson, R., and Carlsson, J.: Effect of anaerobiosis and sulfide on killing of bacteria by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Periodont. Res., 8: 346-353, 1993

898 Hannah, R.S., Hayden, L.J., and Roth, S.H.: Hydrogen sulfide exposure alters the amino acid content in developing rat CNS. Neurosci. Lett., 99: 323-327, 1989

899 Johnson, P.W., Yaegaki, K., and Tonzetich, J.: Effect of volatile thiol compounds on protein metabolism by human gingival fibroblasts. J. Periodont. Res., 27: 553-561, 1992

900 Khatoon, S., Campbell, S.R., Haley, B.E., and Slevin, J.T.: Aberrant guanosine triphosphate--tubulin interaction in Alzheimer's disease. Ann. Neurol., 26: 210-215, 1989

901 Kilburn, K.H., and Warshaw, R.H.: Hydrogen sulfide and reduced-sulphur gases adversely affect neurophysiological functions. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 11: 185-197, 1995

902 Kombian, S.B., Reiffenstein, R.J, and Colmers, W.F.: The actions of hydrogen sulfide on dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons in vitro. J. Neurophysiol. 81-96, 1993

903 Larsen, J.T., Claesson, R., Edlund, M.-B. and Carlsson, J.:Competition for peptides and amino acids among periodontal bacteria. J. Periodont. Res.,30: 390-395, 1995

904 Loomer, P.M., Sigusch, B., Sukhu, B., Ellen, R.P. and Tenenbaum, H.C.: Direct effects of metabolic products and sonicated extracts of Porphyromonas gingivalis 2561 on osteogenesis in vitro. Infect. Immun., 62: 1289-1297, 1994

905 Nair, P.N:R., Sjogren, U., Krey, G., Kahnberg, K.-E., Sundqvist, G.: Intraradicular bacteria and fungi in root-filled, asymptomatic human teeth with therapy-resistant periapical lesions: a long-term light and electron microscopic follow-up study. J. Endodon., 16: 580-588, 1990

906 Pendergrass, J.C., Haley, B.E., Vimy, M.J., Winfield, S.A., and Lorscheider, F.L.: Mercury vapor inhalation inhibits binding of GTP to tubulin in rat brain: similarity to a molecular lesion in Alzheimer diseased brain. Neurotoxicology, 18: 315-324, 1996

907 Pendergrass, J.C., Haley, B.E.: Inhibition of brain tubulin-guanosine 5'-triphosphate interactions by mercury: Similarity to Observations in Alzheimer's diseased brain. Metal ions in biological systems: mercury and its effects on environment and biology (Sigel, H. and Sigel, A., eds) Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp461-478, 1996

908 Pendergrass, J.C., Haley, B.E.: Mercury-EDTA complex specifically blocks brain -tubulin interactions: similarity to observations in Alzheimer's disease. Status quo and perspectives of amalgam and other dental materials (Friberg L.T. and Schrauzer G.N., eds) Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, pp98-105, 1995

909 Persson, S.: Hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan in periodontal pockets. Oral Microbiol. Immunol., 7: 378-379, 1992

910 Persson, S., Claesson, R., Carlsson, J.: Chemotaxis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the presence of sulfide. Oral Microbiol. Immunol., 8: 46-49, 1993

911 Ratcliff, P.: Local predisposing events leading to gingivitis and periodontitis. J. Periodont., 66: 749-750, 1995

912 Reiffenstein, R.J., Hulbert, W.C., and Roth, S.H.: Toxicology of hydrogen sulfide. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 109-134, 1992

913 Roth, S.H., Skrajny, B., and Reiffenstein, R.J.: Alterations of the morphology and neurochemistry of the developing mammalian nervous system by hydrogen sulfide. Clin. Exptl. Pharmacol. Physiol., 22: 379-380, 1995

914 Skrajny, B., Reiffenstein, R.J. Sainsbury, R.S., and Roth, S.H.: Effects of repeated exposures of hydrogen sulphide on rat hippocampal EEG. Toxicol. Lett., 84: 43-53, 1996

915 Warenycia, M.W., Goodwin, L.R., Benishin, C.G., Reiffenstein, R.J., et al.: Acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Biochem. Pharmacol., 38: 973-981, 1989

916 Safavi, K.E., Rossomando, E.F.: Tumor necrosis factor identified in periapical tissue exudates of teeth with apical periodontitis. J. of Endodontitis, 17(1): 12ff, 1990

917 Maiorino, R.M., et al.:Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate challenge test for mercury in humans. III. Urinary mercury after exposure to mercurous chloride. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 277(2): 938-44, 1996

918 Keith, R.L., et al.: Utilization of renal slices to evaluate the efficacy of chelating agents for removing mercury from the kidney. Toxicology, 116(1-3): 67-75, 1997

919 Aposhian, M.M., et al.: Sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS) treatment does not redistribute lead or mercuri to the brain of rat. Toxicology, 109(1): 49-55, 1996

920 Aposhian, H.V., et al.: Urinary mercury after administration of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid: correlation with dental amalgam score. FASEB J., 6(7): 2472-6, 1992

921 Aposhian, H.V., et al.: Human studies with the chelating agents, DMPS and DMSA. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 30(4): 505-28, 1992

922 Hermann, M., Schweinsberg, F.: Biomonitoring for the evaluation of a mercury burden from amalgam fillings. Mercury determination in urine before and after oral doses of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and in hair. Abteilung Allgemeine Hygiene und Umwelthygiene, Universitt Tbingen, Zentralbl-Hyg-Umweltmed., 194(3): 271-91, 1993

923 Zander, D., et al.: The mercury exposure of the population. III. Mercury mobilisation by DMPS (Dimaval) in subjects with and without amalgam fillings. Medizinisches Institut fr Umwelthygiene, Heinrich Heine-Universitt Dsseldorf

924 Molin, M., et al.; Mobilized mercury in subjects with varying exposure to elemental mercury vapour. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 63(3): 187-92, 1991

925 Maiorino, R.M., et al.: Determination and metabolism of dithiol chelating agents. XII Metabolism and pharmakinetics of sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-sulfonate in humans. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 259(2): 808-14, 1991

926 Gerhard, I., et al.: Diagnosis of heavy metal loading by the oral DMPS and chewing gum tests. Clin. Lab., 38: 404-11,

927 Gonzales-Ramirez, D., et al.: Urinary mercury, porphyrins and neurobehavioral changes in dental workers in Monterrey, Mexico. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap., 272: 264-274, 1995

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929 WHO Criteria 118, 1991

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931 Lexmond, T.-M., et al.: On the methylation of inorganic mercury and the decomposition of organo-mercury compounds - A review. Neth. J. Aci., 24: 79-97, 1976

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933 Edwards, T.: Biosyntheses and degradation of methyl mercury in human faeces. Nature, Vol. 253, 462-464, 1975

934 Blum, J. and Bartha, R.: Effect of salinity on Methylation of mercury. Bulletin Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 25: 404-408, 1980

935 Bertilson, L. and Neujahr, H.Y.: Methylation of mercury compounds by methylcobalamin. Biochemistry, Vol. 10, No. 14, 2805-2828, 1971

936 Imura, N., et al.: Chemical Methylation of inorganic mercury with methylcobalamin, a vitamin B-12 analog. Science, Vol. 172, 1248-1249, 1971

937 Jernelov, A. and Martin, A.: Ecological implications of methal metabolism by microorganisms. Annual Review of Microbiology, 61-77, 1975

938 Lander, L.: Biochemical model for the biological Methylation of mercury suggested from Methylation studies in vivo with Neurospora crassa. Nature, Vol. 230, 452-454, 1971

939 Wataha et al.: Dental Materials. 10(5): pp2988-303, 1994

940 Hamdy, M.K., and Noyes, O.R.: Formation of methyl mercury by bacteria. Appl. Microbiol., Vol. 30, No. 3, 424-432, 1975

941 Brunker, R.L. and Bott, T.L.: Reduction of mercury to the elemental state by a yeast. Appl. Microbiol., Vol 27, No. 5, 870-73, 1974

942 Holm, H.W. and Cox, M.F.: Transformation of elemental mercury by bacteria. Appl. Microbiol., Vol. 29, No. 4, 491&494, 1975

943 Pan Hou, H.S. and Imura, N.: Involvement of mercury Methylation in Microbial mercury detoxification. Arch. Microbiol., 131: 176-177, 1982

944 Bisogni, J.J. and Lawrence, A.W.: Kinetics of mercury Methylation in aerobic and anaerobic aquatic environments. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., 47: 135-152, 1975

945 Report on the international committee on MAC values on mercury (1969)

946 USEPA document on mercury 1973 & 1984

947 US NIOSH document on mercury 1973

948 Wieliczka, D.M. et al.: Equilibrium vapor pressure of mercury from dental amalgam in vitro. Dent. Mater., 12(3): 179-184, 1996

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1136 Langolf, G.D., et al.: Evaluation of workers exposed to elemental mercury using quantitative tests of tremor and neuromuscular functions. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc., 39(12): 976-84, 1978

1137 Zweben, L.L.: Mercury poisoning: A case history. J. New Jersey Dent. Assoc., 10-1, 1978

1138 Albers, J.W. et al.: Asymptomatic sensorimotor polyneuropathy in workers exposed to elemental mercury. Neurology, 32: 1168-74, 1982

1139 Adams, C.R., et al.: Mercury intoxication simulating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 250:642-3, 1983

1140 Cook, T.A. and Yates, P.O.: Fatal mercury intoxication in dental surgery assistant. Br. Dent. J., 127: 553-5, 1969

1141 Ritchie, K.A. et al.: Psychomotor testing of dentists with chronic low-level mercury exposure. J. Dent. Res., 74(S1): 420, A-160

1142 Schumann, K.: The toxicological estimation of the heavy metal content (Cd, Hg, Pb) in food for infants and small children. Z. Ernhrungswiss., 29(1): 54-73, 1990

1143 Vimy et al.: Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings. Am. J. Physiol., 258 R939-R945, 1990

1144 Vimy et al.: Mercury from maternal ``silver'' tooth fillings in sheep and human breast milk. Biological Trace Element Research, V56, pp143, 1997

1145 Warfinge, K., et al.: Development of prenatal exposure to mercury vapor. Neurotoxicology, 15(4), 1994

1146 Cutright, D.E., et al.: Systemic mercury levels caused by inhaling mist during high-speed amalgam grinding. J. Oral Med., 28, 100, 1973

1147 EPA Mercury Health Effects update. Health Issue Assessment. EOA-600/8-84f. USEPA, 1984

1148 Goyer, R.A.: Toxic effects of metals. Cassarett and Doull's toxicology - The basic science of poisons, ed3, New York, MacMillan, Publ. Co, pp582-609, 1986

1149 Kuhnert, P. et al.: Comparison of mercury levels in maternal blood fetal chord and placental tissue. Am. J. Obstet and Gynecol., 139: 209-12, 1981

1150 Kuntz, W.D.: Maternal and chord blood mercury background levels; Longitudinal surveillance. Am. J. Obstet and Gynecol., 143: 440-443, 1982

1151 Brodsky, J.B.: Occupational exposure to mercury in dentistry and pregnancy outcome. JADA 111(11): 779-80, 1985

1152 Yoshida, M., et al.: Milk transfer and tissue uptake of mercury in suckling offspring after exposure of lactating maternal guinea pigs to inorganic or methyl mercury. Arch. Toxicol., 68(3): 174-8, 1994

1153 Ellender, G., et al.: Toxic effects of dental amalgam implants. Optical, histological and histochemical observations. Aust. Dent. J., 23:5 pp395-99, 1978

1154 Fisher, D., et al.: A 4 year follow-up study of alveolar bone height influenced by 2 dissimilar class 2 amalgam restorations.

1155 Freden, H., et al.: Mercury content in gingival tissues adjacent to amalgam fillings. Odont. Rev., 25: 207-210, 1974

1156 Koivumaa, K.K. and Makila, E.: The effect of galvanism on accumulation of bacterial plaque invivo. Suom Hammaslaak Toim., 66: 367-371, 1970

1157 Lindquist & Mornstad: Effects of removing amalgam fillings from patients with diseases affecting the immune system. Medical Science Research., 24, 1996

1158 Bratel, J., et al.: Effect of replacement of dental amalgam on oral lichenoid reactions. J. Dent., 24(1-2): 41-45, 1996

1159 Ibbotson, S.H., et al.: The relevance and effect of amalgam replacement in subjects with oral lichenoid reactions. Br. J. Dermatol., 134(3): 420-3, 1996

1160 James, J., et al.: Oral lichenoid reactions related to mercury sensitivity. Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg., 25(6): 474-480, 1987

1161 Jameson, M.W. et al.: Mucosal reactions to amalgam restorations. J. Oral Rehabil., 17(4): 293-301, 1990

1162 Koch, P. and Bahmer, F.A.: Oral lichenoid lesions, Hg hypersensitivity and combined hypersensitivity to mercury and other metals. Contact Dermatitis, 33(5): 323-328, 1995

1163 Lind, P.O., et al.: Electrogalvanically-induced contact allergy of the oral mucosa. Report of a case. Int. J. Oral Surg., 13(4):339-345, 1984

1164 Lind, P.O., et al.: Amalgam-related oral lichenoid reaction. Scand. J. Dent. Res., 94(5): 448-451, 1986

1165 Pang, B.K. and Freeman, S.: Oral lichenoid lesions caused by allergy to mercury in amalgam fillings. Contact Dermatitis, 33(6): 423-427, 1995

1166 Skoglund, A. and Egelrud, T.: Hypersensitivity reactions to dental materials in patients with lichenoid oral mucosal lesions and in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Scand. J. Dent. Res., 99(4): 320-8, 1991

1167 Fox, J.G. and Jones, J.M.: Occupational stress in dental practice. B.D.J., 123:10 pp 465-473, 1967

1168 Iyer, K., et al.: Mercury poisoning in a dentist. Arch. Neurol., 33: pp788-90, 1976

1169 Ship, I.I. and Shapiro, I.M.: Preventing mercury poisoning in dental practice. The J. of the Houston District Dental Society, pp18-20, 1983

1170 Simpson, R., et al.: Suicide statistics of dentists in Iowa 1968-1980. JADA 107, 441-3, 1983

1171 Fox, C.H., et al.: Periodontal disease among New England elders. Journal of Periodontology, Vol 65, No. 7, pg. 676-684, 1994

1172 Mattila, K.J. et al.: Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction. British Medical J., Vol. 298, pg 779-782, 1989

1173 DeStefano, F.D., et al.: Dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality. Br. Med. J., Vol. 306, 688-691, 1993

1174 Joshipura, K.J. et al.: Poor oral health and coronary heart disease. Journal of dental Research, Vol. 75, No. 9, 1631-1636, 1996

1175 Beck, J.D.: Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. Presented at the symposium: The relation of periodontal infection to systemic diseases. Bufallo N.Y., May 20, 1995

1176 Offenbacher, S., et al.: Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight. J. Periodontology, 1996

1177 Pendergrass and Haley: Mercury and its effects on environment and biology in metal ions in biological systems. V 34, 461-478, 1997, Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY, NY

1178 Brun, R.: Epidemiology of contact dermatitis in Geneva. Contact dermatitis, 1: 214-7, 1975

1179 Djerassi, E. and Berova, N.: The possibilities of allergic reactions from silver amalgam restorations. Int. Dent. J., 19:4, 481-88, 1969

1180 Miller, E.G., et al.: Prevalence of mercury hypersensitivity in dental students. J. Dent. Res., 64:338 Special issue abstracts # 1472, 1985

1181 Nebenfuher, L., et al.: Mercury allergy in Budapest. Contact Dermatitis, 10(2): 121-122, 1983

1182 Rudner, et al.: Epidemiology of contact dermatitis in North America. Arch. Derm., 108(4): 537-40, 1973, 1996

1183 White, R. and Brandt, R.: Development of mercury hypersensitivity among dental students. JADA, 92: 1204-1207, 1976

1184 Ahlbom, A. et al.: Dentists, Nurses and Brain Tumors: 4th International Symposium Epidemiology Occupational Health, Como, Italy, 10-12 September 1985 (Abstracts)

1185 Arrhenius, E.: Methyl mercury in fish - a toxicologic-epidemiologic evaluation. Nord Hygien. Tidskr., suppl 4, pp166, 1971

1186 Kuntz, W.D., et al.: Maternal and chord blood background mercury levels: A longitudinal surveillance. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., pp440-443, 1982

1187 Mansour, M., et al.: Maternal-fetal transfer of organic mercury via placenta and milk. Env. Res., 6: pp 479-484, 1973

1188 Nixon, G.S., et al.: Pregnancy outcome in female dentists. B.D.J. 146, pp 39-42, 1979

Pitkin, R.M. et al.: Mercury in human maternal and cord blood, placenta and milk. Proceedings of the society for experimental biology and medicine, 151 pp565-567,

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lou
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These things should definitely be looked at in an unbiased way. Sometimes the research seems to start out with a desired outcome in mind, and guess what, the research confirms it.

I am not sure what to make of this. Not clear to me why mercury is such a big component of amalgams, or why dentists think it is not a problem. Guess I should read more, but not having dental insurance and dreading dental trauma, replacing amalgams is not on my list of things to do (my list is already too long).

My mercury urine test came back elevated. I was told that some people with this result stopped eating fish for six months and knocked down the level a lot. But I also have elevated lead levels. No lead in fish or amalgams? Probably everyone who grew up in the era of lead based paints and leaded gas has now got this problem. We also have many dubious man-made chemicals building up in our poor bodies. In my opinion, anything that causes the immune system to function at a lower level, as in foreign disturbances that are introduced, could cause health problems. But how much of that stuff is significant, and how do those things work together at lower than toxic levels? That is the big question.

[ 14. July 2006, 09:18 AM: Message edited by: lou ]

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johnnyb
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Is this statement no longer accurate?

"In February, 1994 Sweden announced a total ban on the use of mercury fillings in young adults. Denmark, Germany and Austria followed suit. In Switzerland and Japan, the dental schools no longer teach amalgam use as the primary source of dental care."

Were all these bans repealed?

Even if I buy into some pro-mercury arguments, that fact that entire countries have banned and/or restricted use of mercury in fillings has to make you ask why.....

Here is a link to a site discussing the european ban of mercury, and the fact that the ADA is working on a mercury replacement filling, with the comment "why would they want to replace it if its so safe?"

http://tinyurl.com/lgrqv
(used tinyurl!)

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JRWagner
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Terry...I was not implying that the article was not real, only that the real health articles form yesterday were not what you posted.

Here are some requested links...these do NOT address lead.

In addition, LOW levels of Mercury, or most any other metal, are addressed...not HIGH levels, which one could only get from eating fish with high Mercury levels every day, or ingesting other sources (atmosphere, plants (from pollution)etc.). High levels of any metal ARE dangerous, but most of us do not have this issue.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/05/030516082905.htm

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/02/060224085734.htm

This is the one that addresses Farmed vs Wild Salmon...very important!

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/12/051226100222.htm

The next one addresses dental amalgams in children...safe.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/04/060418175827.htm

Sure many studies exist...but are they reputable, replicable, peer reviewed? Where are they published? How old are they?

There is a lot of bogus studies out there for ANY subject. Be careful and safe!

Peace, Love and Welness,
JRW

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Alias24
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JRW just posted:
"...not HIGH levels, which one could only get from eating fish with high Mercury levels every day, or ingesting other sources (atmosphere, plants (from pollution)etc.). High levels of any metal ARE dangerous, but most of us do not have this issue."


In Feb. 2005 I did an oral DMPS challenge and my mercury level was double or more than double the maximum amount. In April I had 5 silver amalgams removed that were 19+ years old. Around Sept. 2005 I did a chelation DMPS challenge and my mercury levels were barely above maximum. From April to Sept. I did several things to pull out the mercury.

Previous to Feb. 2005 I ate fish maybe two or three times a month (not everyday). I called our water dept. and found out that mercury basically didn't even register in my water source.

I have yet to find someone who can explain to me where my high mercury levels came from other than for the silver (mercury) amalgams?

The dentist who removed my silver amalgams said "By law I have to mix the amalgam in an air tight box and I can't wash the silver amalgams down the drain because it is not safe but I can put it in your mouth".

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TerryK
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JRW,
Thanks very much for your references. From what I can tell, there isn't much doubt that mercury is dangerous but there is much debate as to how much mercury etc.. but that is not the issue regarding the article that I posted.

The issue in the article relates to whether amalgams cause bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics.

From what I've found so far, here are my thoughts on the issue of amalgams causing resistance to abx.

There doesn't seem to be any question that mercury causes *some* types of bacteria to become antibiotic resistant. You could look at the University of Georgia info that I posted about the environmental mercury or some of the other studies which all seem to accept that mercury causes some types of bacteria to become resistant to abx.

In my mind, the questions are
1. does this occur in humans?
2. which bacteria becomes resistant to abx (does Bb)?
3. how much mercury does it take?

One study shows that the presence of mercury restorations in children's teeth has little effect on the prevalence of mercury or antibiotic-resistant oral bacteria. The study that was done on monkeys applies to intestinal bacteria in primates. I've found no studies on adult humans and intestinal bacteria or any bacteria so far.

From what I can glean in reading some of the studies, some types of bacteria will develop resistance and some won't. I doubt that there are any studies specific to Bb on the subject. There may be some significance in the fact that another spirochete (syphilis) used to be treated with mercury but at this point, I don't know what it might mean in terms of abx resistance in Bb.

Based on my current level of knowledge, I have not come to any final conclusions as to the likelihood that Bb becomes resistant to abx due to amalgams. I do think that amalgams could very well play a part in the inability of some lyme patients to clear the infection *if* mercury causes Bb or some other infection that is synergistic with Bb to become abx resistant. Also, there is the possibility that mercury could be depressing the immune system although I have seen some studies that refute that claim.

I can't believe that there is so little research into this angle (amalgams causing abx resistance in bacteria) but I guess it shouldn't be that surprising considering the political conflicts that seem to exist in this area. As we've already seen, supression of information in the medical area is not that unusual. OTOH - maybe I've missed some of the research in my searches. If I find anything, I'll be sure to post it.

Terry

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TerryK
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Thanks for the link Johnnyb. Interesting.
Terry

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DanP
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speaking from 1st hand experience, 15 years ago i had all my amalgam fillings replaced...one by one.
Because i had heard that perhaps they were poisoning me.

One day, I was in the dentist chair, waiting for the last filling to be taken out, when i decided that I'd already spent a load of $ on this exercise, so i asked the dentist what this last one would cost...when he told me, i decided to risk it and told him to replace the old amalgam with a new amalgam...GUESS WHAT?

one half hour later, the time it took me to get back to my desk at my office, I had a headache the likes of which i had never had, i was flush with sweat, and i was nauseous to the point of vomiting...i rushed back to the dentist and had him take the new amalgam out and replace it with gold...a half hour later, i was back to normal

NO JOKE! that's when i knew for sure there was something to the theory that amalgams are not good for you....

Dan P

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JRWagner
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DanP...I am glad you no longer hurt but your headache could have come from the dentist missing some decay or bacteria, which would, and I can attest to this first hand, produce a very nasty headache indeed if covered over by another filling (pressure from multiplying bacteria)...bad dentist, refilled a cavity poorly. If you were not getting headaches in the first place with the amalgams, why should you start getting them? It makes no sense. I have had fillings replaced with absolutely no problems.

I have also had my Mercury levels checked...too low to detect. I do NOT eat Swordfish, Shark, Mackerel, or certain species of Tuna. I do NOT eat fish caught in lakes...high levels of Mercury from Coal Fired plants in the midwest.

No Mercury in the NYC water supply either.

Both of my Grandmothers and one Grandfather lived VERY healthy lives into their 90's. All had Amalgams in their mouths. Hell, m Grandfather had a Silver mine in there. He died...at 93.

I have had three friends try the "removing the Amalgam" route, and yes, they are all Chronic Lymies... They are NO BETTER...just poorer, and yes, GOLD is the best filling but it is overpriced.

Composites are not very strong and they do not last long...requiring more drilling to remove and replace...thus leading to less tooth structure.

Oh, when the Amalgam hardens it becomes much less prone to "gass Of" then when it is being prepared for a filling. This is the reason the Dentists need to be careful. Too much of amalgam in the water/sewer system and it could effect the food chain...a very different scenario than stable fillings in one's mouth.

By the way, DocDave (Chroniclymie) is a dentist...ask him what he thinks.

There are MILLIONS of people with Silver Amalgam fillings who have absolutely no health issues.

Could some people react to the amalgams? Of course, there are no absolutes in science.

As for the bacteria/Mercury issue...more SOUND studies are needed.

The problem is Borrelia's ability to evade and manipulate the immune system, as well as individual host cells.

We are dealing with a VERY COMPLEX and "INTELLIGENT" bacteria. Borrelia makes the Syphilis bacteria, also a Spiro., look like an elementary school kid in comparison.


Science needs to find out WHY some of us become Chronic, and why others DO get "cured" from an initial dose of ABX (my Sister did). Lucky her...


That said, if one feels they MUST do something...do it!

Peace, Love and Wellness,
JRW

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johnnyb
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I still wonder why entire countries would ban mercury in fillings if something wasn't up. Are we a much "smarter" country than all of them?

Better safe than sorry.

You make some points, but since there are studies on both sides, why take the chance?

I, for one, am not EVER going to put mercury in my son's mouth. But that's just me.

To each his own.

- JB

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lemonade
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Dr B wrote, a "small but significant" number of chronic lyme patients may not be significantly helped by their antibiotics and may have heavy metals.

My mercury was off the chart and lead was also very high.

I have had my fillings out and hope to start chelating soon.

There's lots of information on lymenet on this subject if you do a search.

There seems to be a corrolation between lyme and heavy metals.

Obviously like everything else about lyme, not everyone is affected the same way but I'm hopeful that this will help me. We're all searching for a way to feel better and can't leave a stone unturned!

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Marnie
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This too, Terry:

http://www.courant.com/news/health/ats-ap_health10jul11,0,7782846.story?coll=hc-utility-news-health

As if Hg wasn't a HUGE problem by itself...we never thought we'd have a pathogen that liked zinc and a LOT of dental products also contain zinc.

Zinc is absolutely needed by our immune system. It becomes "displaced" it appears. It's toxic in high doses.

Calprotectin, in WBCs, bind zinc...and our WBCs (neutrophils are the most abundant) are produced (old out, new formed) every 3-4 weeks.

Does that timing sound familiar?

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bobdavis
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You can lower your metal levels by taking chlorella or trying the detox foot pads. I have done a couple of rounds of the foot pads I bought on ebay. I think the seller is cheapdetoxpads4sale.

This might be a link to the seller.
http://stores.ebay.com/HealthMarvels-Detox-Pads

I do not know nor am I related to the seller of these foot pads.

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tempe
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Isn't it too late for those that already have resistant bacteria? Since I had 6 amalgam fillings when I first got lyme in 1990, the Bb in my body are already resistant to mercury and abx, and their offspring would inherit the mutated gene creating resistance that their parent developed.

So taking amalgams out now could not change the antibiotic-resistance that the Bb in my body already have.

The information about amalgams is great to keep us from putting them in our children, but how could taking out the old ones we lymies already had change the fact that the Bb in our bodies have become mercury & abx-resistant?

Tempe

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GiGi
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Have heard a lot over the last few years. But never heard of Borrelia resistant mercury. Borrelia loves mercury; it lives right there with the mercury because it does not run the risk of being wiped out by oxygenated blood. So do most related and unrelated microorganisms that have invaded our body because of the unhealthy, mercury, chemical and other heavy mettal contaminated terrain.

Once you start clearing the heavy metals out, life comes back into the world of cells, and you have a great chance of wiping out the invasion of microorganisms. It is not the other way around, definitely. Metals out, all the while you can work and be much more successful at reducing Lyme and all the other critters that ruin our life in those numbers.

I have seen it happen not only to myself, to my husband, but to many other people that were suffering badly at one time.

On the other hand, as I have always said, we all have a choice: if you don't believe that mercury in the body is a killer to a chronically ill person, do not stress yourself and hang on to it. But do not call the thousands of scientists that have done research over many years incompetents.

Take care.

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tempe
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[QUOTE]Originally posted by GiGi:
[QB] Have heard a lot over the last few years. But never heard of Borrelia resistant mercury.


I was talking about Mercury-resistant borrelia bacteria, not the reverse. One of the articles in this thread talked about bacteria first becoming resistant to mercury & that made them resistant to bacteria.

So once the bacteria have mutated to become resistant to mercury & therefore antibiotics, how can taking out amalgams change what has already occurred?

I'm just trying to understand.

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lemonade
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Lucy and Julie,
Well this is interesting. My daughter started with symptoms a couple of months ago at age 10! Terrible anxiety,tired and what she called hot and cold.

Growing up she had what we thought was growing pains. Years ago when I had neck pain (that turned out to be lyme) I thought it was how I slept!

It's really easy to brush off these symptoms.

I think my daughter also may have gotten it from me since I was positive for lyme many years ago but didn't get bad until a year ago.(no one ever said I could pass it on to her and I had no idea!)

I've heard that alot of kids get anxiety and depression so I am really worried.

She's at the beginning of treatment and I know this can be a long haul.

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TerryK
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Tempe wrote:
So once the bacteria have mutated to become resistant to mercury & therefore antibiotics, how can taking out amalgams change what has already occurred?

Some thoughts about why this might happen. If the changes that occurred in the bacteria are an adaptation to the environment and not a mutation, then future generations of the bacteria will not be born with the resistance to abx. For example, if you go out in the sun and get a tan, the next time you go out in the sun you are less likely to get burned because you have a tan. That does not mean that your children will be born with a tan or that they will be less likely to get a sun burn because it is an environmental adaptation and not a genetic adaptation.

Another possibility is that it is a genetic adaptation but because bacteria evolve so much faster than humans (and Borellia seems particularly adept at evolving and adapting)it takes a much shorter time for the bacteria to evolve and lose it's resistance to abx.

I'm just guessing about these possibilities. There may be a different reason all together but I do think I recall reading something that stated that once the mercury is removed, the bacteria lose their resistance.

Remember that we don't know (and I don't think anyone knows) for sure whether Bb is mercury and/or antibiotic resistant in the presence of amalgams. It seems that Dr. K feels pretty certain that they are and he could be and probably is correct but there are no studies that prove it.

Mercury was used as a treatment for syphilis at one time and in looking around briefly, it looks like syphilis can become resistant to mercury and many other antibiotics. As we all know, syphilis is a similar bacteria (albiet much simpler) to Borellia. If it is true that once mercury resistant then antibiotic resistance follows, it seems very possible that Bb could become resistant to abx in the presence of mercury.

I am not an authority on bacteria and am just guessing. Maybe someone else with a better understanding will come along with an explanation.
Terry

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liz28
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This story is from 1993.
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lemonade
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I've been a patient of his too. If anyone knows of a LLMD on Long Island or NYC please let me know. This is very sad.
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cmichaelo
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quote:
Originally posted by johnnyb:
Is this statement no longer accurate?

"In February, 1994 Sweden announced a total ban on the use of mercury fillings in young adults. Denmark, Germany and Austria followed suit. In Switzerland and Japan, the dental schools no longer teach amalgam use as the primary source of dental care."

Were all these bans repealed?

Even if I buy into some pro-mercury arguments, that fact that entire countries have banned and/or restricted use of mercury in fillings has to make you ask why.....

Here is a link to a site discussing the european ban of mercury, and the fact that the ADA is working on a mercury replacement filling, with the comment "why would they want to replace it if its so safe?"

I may be able to shed some light on why there's a total ban on amalgam fillings in Denmark (as well as Sweden, Germany and Austria.)

I was born in Denmark and lived there my first 25 years.

In each of these countries, especially Denmark and Sweden, a huge fraction of the population works for the government.

Secondly, the government regulates, funds and controls a very large fraction of the industry.

It's not a free market to the extent it is in the US. It's much less capitalistic in a sense. Also companies are to a significant extent protected from competition from companies in other countries. Though much of this has changed with the advent of the EU.

In any case, the people who work for the government very much have the peoples concerns in mind. Whether these concerns are real concerns or hysterical concerns, they are nevertheless being attended to to a degree unheard of in the US.

When a local research institution finds that amalgam is dangerous and decides to report this upwards, there's not much questioning of the validity of the study, assuming the institution is viewed as an authority on the subject.

The government knows the public is concerned about amalgam, and now they have a study that shows there may be some truth to it and then they decide to act on it.

And it's easy for them to pass a ban on amalgam due to the vast industry control they have within the country.

Wrt the potential economic impact of the ban, well, it is much less important than the health of the citizens. This is one reason why Denmark has an astronimical trade deficit.

Besides, Denmark often follows the trend in Sweden, or vice versa. And then this sort of domino effect happens with other countries.

So personally, I'm not so impressed with the fact that amalgam is baned in Sweden et al.

Truthfully, I have no idea of how dangerous amalgam fillings really is. My gutt tells me it's not that serious, as long as the amalgam was mixed correctly and put in correctly.

However I do believe that not all dentists are equally skilled in the art of handling/mixing amalgam. I'm totally speculating now, but this may cause some peoples fillings to leach if the amalgam is improperly installed.

FWIW.

Michael

--------------------
I'm not an MD. The above is IMO and in my experience as well as from health related books.

I've had symptoms consistent with neurological Lyme disease since 1986. Was diagnosed with Lyme in 2004. Am feeling better now than ever before.

Posts: 702 | From NY | Registered: Jul 2004  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
   

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