Steere?? **************** 1: Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 1;46(1):85-92.
Higher mRNA levels of chemokines and cytokines associated with macrophage activation in erythema migrans skin lesions in patients from the United States than in patients from austria with lyme borreliosis.
Jones KL, Muellegger RR, Means TK, Lee M, Glickstein LJ, Damle N, Sikand VK, Luster AD,
1Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and 2Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
Background. @nbsp; Erythema migrans (EM) is caused primarily by Borrelia afzelii in Europe and solely by Borrelia burgdorferi in the United States.
B. burgdorferi infection in the United States has previously been associated with faster expansion of EM lesions and with more associated symptoms, compared with B. afzelii infection in Europe.
However, reasons for these differences are not yet known. Methods. @nbsp; We determined the Borrelia species infecting 67 US or Austrian patients with EM. The clinical pictures and chemokine and cytokine mRNA levels in lesional skin were then compared in the 19 B. burgdorferi-infected US patients and the 37 B. afzelii-infected Austrian patients, the 2 largest groups.
Results. @nbsp; The 19 B. burgdorferi-infected US patients had faster-expanding EM lesions and a median of 4 associated signs and symptoms, whereas the 37 B. afzelii-infected Austrian patients had slower-expanding lesions and usually did not experience associated symptoms.
Compared with the EM lesions of B. afzelii-infected Austrian patients, those of B. burgdorferi-infected US patients had significantly higher mRNA levels of chemokines associated with activation of macrophages, including chemoattractants for neutrophils (CXCL1), macrophages (CCL3 and CCL4), and T helper 1 cells (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11). In addition, compared with the EM lesions of Austrian patients, the EM lesions of US patients tended to have higher mRNA levels of the macrophage-associated proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and they had significantly higher mRNA expression of the antiinflammatory cytokines interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor beta.
Conclusions. @nbsp; The EM lesions of B. burgdorferi-infected US patients expanded faster, were associated with more symptoms, and had higher mRNA levels of macrophage-associated chemokines and cytokines than did the EM lesions of B. afzelii-infected Austrian patients.
-------------------- There is no wealth but life. -John Ruskin
All truth goes through 3 stages: first it is ridiculed: then it is violently opposed: finally it is accepted as self evident. - Schopenhauer Posts: 5639 | From Aptos CA USA | Registered: Apr 2005
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I bet the SOB let the patients"s EM expand without treating them, just to see how big it would get. Steere now accepts that Bb produces a vigorous immune response. Which can go on for years and years, if not treated properly, in my experience When does the vigorous inmmune response end and fibromyalgia begining. What a monster he is. Truely.
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I agree adam. Steere likely knows this, as does sikand. They are putting on an act. What is mRNA? mRna is the RNA that transmits signals from the genes for protein transcription. What this study is saying is that Bb america is souped up as compared to azfelii. The pathogenic proteins are made in much larger quantity.
Yes, Steere should be put on trial along with dozens of others in relation to this nazi-style coverup. But that won't happen unless there are dramatic political changes, ie, a revolution or an outsider like ron paul being elected, someone who actually believes in the rights of the american people and liberty and justice for all, not just for a select elite.
Posts: 523 | From Stillwater,OK,USA | Registered: Sep 2004
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