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» LymeNet Flash » Questions and Discussion » Medical Questions » Name change of Babesia - Theileria microti... Anyone know about this?

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Author Topic: Name change of Babesia - Theileria microti... Anyone know about this?
sparkle7
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I was studying about Babesia and came across this info -

Theileria microti

From Wikipedia

Life cycle of T. microti, including human infection
Theileria microti is a parasitic blood-borne piroplasm transmitted by deer ticks.

It was previously in the taxonomic genus Babesia, as Babesia microti, until ribosomal RNA comparisons placed it in the sister genus Theileria.[1][2]

T. microti is responsible for the disease human theileriosis, similar to babesiosis, a malaria-like disease which also causes fever and hemolysis.

An important difference from malaria is that T. microti does not infect liver cells. Additionally, the piroplasm is spread by tick bites (Ixodes scapularis, the same tick that spreads Lyme disease), while the malaria protozoans are spread via mosquito.

Finally, under the microscope, the merozoite form of the T. microti lifecycle in red blood cells forms a cross-shaped structure, often referred to as a "Maltese cross", whereas malaria forms more of a diamond ring structure in red blood cells.[3]

- - - - - - - -

Does this make a difference in how it's treated?

Does anyone think that Babesia can be spread via mosquito? I came across something about it that said it could be...

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sparkle7
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More - FYI - I found this interesting....

East Coast fever
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

East Coast fever (theileriosis) is a disease of cattle caused by the protozoan parasite Theileria parva.

The term excludes diseases caused by other Theileria, such as tropical theileriosis (also known as Mediterranean theileriosis), caused by T. annulata, and human theileriosis, caused by T. microti.

East Coast fever is among the most important livestock diseases in Africa,[1] causing an annual loss of 1.1 million cattle and $168 million, as of 1992.[2]

It is found in Sudan, South Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo,[1] Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda.[citation needed] The primary vector for T. parva is Rhipicephalus appendiculatus.[1]

T. parva was first described in 1902 in Zimbabwe, but was misdiagnosed as redwater (a disease caused by Babesia bigemina).

Theileria are the only eukaryotic organisms known to transform lymphocytes.[3]

The intermediate hosts for T. parva are cattle. The definitive hosts are the ticks. Native cattle are often resistant to the parasite.

This is not to say they do not suffer from the parasite; they do. They are hosts to the parasite, but do not suffer as severely as foreign cattle.[4][5]

--

Treatment

One study using the medicinal plant Peganum harmala showed it to have a lifesaving effect on cattle infected with East Coast Fever.[7]

The classical treatment with tetracyclines (1970-1990) can not provide efficiency more than 50 %.

Since the early 1990s, buparvaquone is used in bovine theileriosis with remarquable results (90 to 98 % recovery).

--

"Syrian Rue"

Medicinal uses

Peganum harmala is used as an analgesic and antiinflammatory agent.[13]

In Yemen it was used to treat depression,[14] and it has been established in the laboratory that harmaline, an active ingredient in Peganum harmala, is a central nervous system stimulant and a "reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA),"[15] a category of antidepressant.

Peganum harmala

Smoke from the seeds kills algae, bacteria, intestinal parasites and molds.[10] Peganum harmala has "antibacterial activity,"[16] including antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacteria.[17]

The "root is applied to kill lice" and when burned, the seeds kill insects.[18] It also inhibits the reproduction of the Tribolium castaneum beetle.[19]

It is also used as an anthelmintic (to expel parasitic worms).[18] Reportedly the ancient Greeks used powdered Peganum harmala seeds to get rid of tapeworms and to treat recurring fevers (possibly malaria).[20]

Peganum harmala is an abortifacient,[21] and, in large quantities, it can reduce spermatogenesis and male fertility in rats.[22]

[edit]Antiprotozoal

Harmine, a compound present in Peganum harmala, fluoresces under ultraviolet light

It is fairly effective against protozoa including malaria. There is evidence that it may be effective against drug-resistant protozoa.[17]

It is given in a decoction for laryngitis.[18]

One of the compounds found in Peganum harmala, vasicine (peganine) has been found to be safe and effective against Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite that can cause potentially "fatal visceral leishmaniasis."[23]

"Peganine hydrochloride dihydrate, besides being safe, was found to induce apoptosis in both the stages of L. donovani via loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential."[24]

Another alkaloid harmine found in Peganum harmala, ". . .because of its appreciable efficacy in destroying intracellular parasites as well as non-hepatotoxic and non-nephrotoxic nature, harmine, in the vesicular forms, may be considered for clinical application in humans."[25]

One study using the medicinal plant Peganum harmala showed it to have a lifesaving effect on cattle infected with the protozoal East Coast fever,[26] which can be 100% fatal and killed 1.1 million cattle in Africa in 1991.

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Pinelady
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Sign me up.

--------------------
Suspected Lyme 07 Test neg One band migrating in IgG region
unable to identify.Igenex Jan.09IFA titer 1:40 IND
IgM neg pos
31 +++ 34 IND 39 IND 41 IND 83-93 +
DX:Neuroborreliosis

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MariaA
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Interesting info, thanks.

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Hoosiers51
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I started a topic about this last year after seeing this on Wikipedia....there wasn't much response to it as I recall.

I also have mentioned this name change a moderate amount on this board when talking about babesia, but I'm not sure many people caught on to what I was saying. Every once in awhile I would say something like, "besides, babesia microti isn't really a babesia, it's a theileria."

I think it's interesting. When it comes down to it, they're both piroplasms. My old LLMD even used the term "piroplasmosis" when describing my illness in some paperwork.

But anywho, this might explain the differences in treatment between the microti people and the duncani/WA-1 people. Maybe.

Duncani folks have more in common with the many animal species that are infected with babesia spp. (dogs, horses, mountain lions, etc). Though of course you see cattle can get theileria.

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Hoosiers51
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ps--I don't think it makes a difference on how microti is treated. The bug is the same bug they have done clinical research on. Just a new name.

Though I bet there are better treatments out there that haven't yet been found.

Note that BABESIA didn't change it's name; it's just that babesia microti changed over to being a theileria. Babesia as a genus still exists, and as far as microbiologists know, babesia duncani is still a babesia.

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James H
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That is fascinating info about compounds extracted from the plant "Peganum harmala" being effective against protozoan infections.

Has there been more info or discussion about this? I see some studies cited, but more specifically, has there been any practical application? Or perhaps use of the herb itself against infective agents that plague us?

I am reading that it has some .... uh... side effects. [dizzy]

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MariaA
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hmm, i'm confused- is it only microti that's had it's genus name changed to theleiria, or did they just change the entire babesia genus to the broader name of theleiria?

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Hoosiers51
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Just the microti.

Babesia and Theileria are two different genus's that exist independent of t. microti. (genus=the first word in the common two-word species names, like in homo erectus (human)...homo is the genus).

They simply moved "babesia" microti (which ended up being a false name) into the theileria category, when they realized it had more in common with the other theileria than the other babesia.

And theileria as a term isn't any broader than babesia, as far as I understand it. They are both classifications on the same level (genus).....both fall under the category (technically called an "Order") of Piroplasm.....but then piroplasms can be babesia or theileria, or other things....then of course in those two genuses, you have different specific species.

Hope that makes sense....just look at the side bar on the right of the Wiki pages, where it says, "Scientific Classification."

I was a science major in college at one point, and that was only a couple years ago, so this stuff is mostly fresh in my mind. I was just taking biology about two years ago. Basic then evolutionary...then I Lymed out.

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Hoosiers51
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ps--I looked for my post from last year, but it's not in the archives for some reason. Rats.
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seibertneurolyme
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I think if I remember correctly when I researched babs in the past -- there are large species of babesia and small species of babesia. This is based on the size of the organisms. Theileria are basically very small babesia I think.

I have always heard that the smaller a parasite is the harder it is to treat. Not sure if that is really true or not though.


I had done a little research on the plant rue in the past -- there are some herbalists who think it might have potential for Lyme treatment also. Was a little concerned about side effects so did not pursue this further.

Bea Seibert

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sparkle7
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Yes, all of this is interesting. I read there are over 110 varieties of babesia. I'm not sure about theileria. It's important to know what we are treating.

I'm not sure how similar these are to malaria. I read malaria destroys the liver while babesia doesn't. It's something I will have to read more about.

On one site, I read that it's possible to get babesia from mosquitos... My symptoms of "babesia" are not typical. I just found out when I started taking Quina that I must have some kind of babesia or whatever.

People with fibromyalgia type symptoms may have babesia or theileria of some kind...?

Very interesting about Syrian Rue! I have done some research on it. I think in smaller doses you probably won't get the psychedelic effects - but it is anti-parasite.

Here's a link to some info-

It's from a Russian source, I believe, so there are some spelling errors. You can find more if you do a search.
http://www.chemdel.com/application_eng/Peganum%20harmala_plant.html

-

This one is geared towards the psychedelic use but it's helpful if you want to try it as an anti-parasite treatment.

http://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/tihkal/tihkal13.shtml

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sparkle7
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PS - There a Chinese drug called Artekin or DUO-COTECXIN. It's supposed to be 96% effective at "curing" malaria.

-

Dihydroartemisinin 40mg + Piperaquine Phosphate 320mg per tablet * 8 tablets,ACT (Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy)

-

I haven't been able to find any place selling it here. I just found links to wholesalers.

If anyone can find more info about it - please post.

Here's the manufacturer's website -

http://www.cotecxin.com/en/products/antimalarial/

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kelmo
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It was listed as an idenfied organism on my daughter's very first Fry blood slide. At the time, it said it was a parasite found on cattle in TX. We used to go to OK and TX every summer.
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karenl
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This is interesting, thanks for posting.

So it looks now that many of the bartonella and the babesia patients have actually protozoans.
And both are somehow related to malaria.

Kelmo, do I see this right?
Karen

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James H
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The antimalarial effects of Artemisinin and its derivatives unfortunately do not seem to work against Babesia.
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MariaA
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EXCUSE ME?

where is that info coming from?

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James H
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Think about it. Why are we not all totally cured of Babesia within a week by Artimisinin? That is how effective it against Malaria.

Malaria concentrates iron laden wastes into a small brown spot that is visible inside the parasite. That Iron is what the Artimisinin uses to kill the Malaria parasite. Babesia excretes the iron wastes outside the cell, so the same mechanism is not available to kill Babesia. Thus it is much harder to get rid of.

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MariaA
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there is a large difference between babesia and malaria in many ways, including the fact that malaria organisms are numerous and babesia organisms are hard to spot, yet each makes you sick in different ways. There has been speculation that it ends up in bone marrow rather than blood, or muscle tissue rather than blood, for example. It's also a lot harder to kill babesia, period, no matter what anti-protozoal medication you use.

Malaria medications of any type work much quicker on malaria than on babesia.

there is a long history of babesia/Lyme patients who don't get better until/unless they add artemesinin to their other antimalarial therapies, so I don't think that just because it takes a long time to get rid of the disease in general, you should say that 'artemesinin does not seem to work'

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James H
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I should have said it does not work near as well. Its effect on Malaria is remarkable.

Believe me, I have gone through lots of Artemisin trying to get rid of Babesia, and its effects are marginal in comparison.

Babesia parasites are actually easier to spot than people think using the right equipment, and they can be pretty numerous some times.

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sparkle7
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What do you think is the best way to get rid of babesia or theileria?

This is all new to me...

This completely sucks. I feel awful. I've been taking cryptolepsis, quina, stephania, & knotweed. I started some noni & probiotics today. I haven't gotten around to artemesia, yet.

I've probably had this for 14 years...

This article is pretty interesting -

It's about Indonesian plants & malaria & a form of babesia. Noni is pretty effective according to the study.

http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jvms/67/8/829/_pdf

This article has alot of info, too -

http://www.itg.be/itg/DistanceLearning/LectureNotesVandenEndenE/08_Various_protozoap13.htm

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sparkle7
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FYI - from Planet Thrive

http://planetthrive.com/tag/babesia/

some excerpts:

Babesia: developing resistance to meds and herbs?
with Stephen Harrod Buhner, master herbalist

It is extremely rare that bacteria develop resistance to herbs. They do, and easily, develop resistance to antibiotics. I discuss this in my Herbal Antibiotics book and in Lost Language of Plants (see book links below) in even more detail.

The resistance rumor is just that, an urban legend. I would highly suggest the use of cryptolepis in the treatment of babesia (see Woodland Essence).

One caveat: artemisinin is an isolated constituent, taken from Artemisia annua. Babesia will NOT develop resistance to Artemisia annua but it may to artemisinin due to the simple nature of the compound.

For long term use I DO NOT recommend the use of artemisinin but DO RECOMMEND the use of Artemisia annua whole herb and/or cryptolepis tincture. If artemisinin does not work with 90 days it probably will not work.

-----

One year on crypto, need to add artemisinin
with Stephen Harrod Buhner, master herbalist

Yes, you can take both herbs at the same time, however I feel some caution with artemisinin is warranted as it is an isolated material, not a whole herb. For long term use I prefer the whole herb Artemisia annua.

These herbs can treat a great many different types of bacteria. Please see my book Herbal Antibiotics (book link below) for specifics.

I am not aware of any side effects from the use of cryptolepis, however most traditional use has been of limited duration as has most trial studies on the herb.

The physical impacts of the long term use of cryptolepis are unknown. I generally prefer limiting its use to 3 months at large doses, 6 months at lower doses.

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James H
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Whether Artemisia and its derivatives are very effective against Babesia or not, it does seem to be very helpful to us. I had great success early in treatment a few years back using Artemisinin in conjunction with Penicillin. It is good stuff.

Babesia is just a tough parasite to get rid of, and we all wish we had something better for it than what we have. That is why I was interested in the Syrian Rue.

Leishmaniasis is a horrible disfiguring disease, and the protozoan that causes it is extremely difficult to treat. The current medication is made from antimony, a heavy metal!

Since it is also reported as effective against several types of Theileria / Babesia it is even more interesting.

I was hoping to find some information indicating that it could be used effectively against protozoan infections at doses lower than the ones that cause the scary hallucinogenic effects. Unfortunately most people who experiment with it are only interested in HOW TO GET HIGH rather than how to get rid of a disease. The last thing we need is something that messes up our minds!

There is only scant information about the medicinal effects. [Frown]

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sparkle7
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Yes. I have been studying it (syrian rue)!

Seems a low dose approach may be helpful but I'm still looking into it.

It's a MOA inhibiter. So, a special diet is needed when taking this herb. It's not for people inexperienced in using herbs...

Often, herbs that are purgative are good for getting rid of parasites. I wouldn't be adverse to trying it after some serious study.

There is a precedent for it & at least 1 study about it being anti-parasite I have found.

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sparkle7
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FYI -

http://tinyurl.com/yeaqdkl

Although the antiprotozoan mechanism of P. harmala extract is as yet unknown,
several studies have shown that different protozoan infections have been susceptible
to P. harmala extract in varying degrees, including theileria annulata, theileria hirci,
theileria sergenti, Babesia bigemina, anaplasma marginale, Babesia equi and Babesia
cabali (VECHERKIn, 1977; FAn et al., 1997; HU et al., 1997; MIRZAIEDEHAGHI, 2006).

Alkaloid compounds illustrate well the diversity of antiprotozoal compounds found in
P. harmala plant (WrIghT and PhIllIPSoN, 1990), and among the several alkaloids
(harmine, harmaline, harmalol, harman, vasicine and vasicinon) derived from P. harmala
extract, harmaline (harmidine, C13H14n2o) has been found to be major active alkaloid
and quite soluble in dilute acids (BUDAVARI and o'NEIl, 1996). In this research, distilled
water and acetic acid have been used for the plant extraction (MAnSKE and holMES,
1952) and it is shown that this plant extract contains a high quantity of harmaline and is
therefore very effective against Leishmania major promastigotes.

Also, we demonstrated
that P. harmala extract demonstrated excellent antileishmanial activity against Leishmania
major promastigotes in vitro.

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sparkle7
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More -

http://www.springerlink.com/content/e50k207w2737t572/

Observations on the treatment of natural haemosporidia infections by total alkaloid of Peganum harmala L. in cattle

Abstract Eighty two cattle naturally infected with haemosporidians were treated with total alkaloid hydrochloride ofPeganum harmale L. (0.5 mg/kg/day).

Fifty eight cases withTheileria sergenti showed a cure rate of 86%; thirteen cases withTheileria annulata showed a cure rate of 85%; eight cattle infected with Babesia bigemina showed a cure rate of 88% and three cases ofAnaplasma marginale were completely cured.

The results suggested that the curative effect of total alkaloid ofP. harmale was better than that of diminazene aceturate and produced minimal side effects.

The alkaloid could also be administered to pregnant animals. It was concluded that the total alkaloid ofP. harmale showed a marked effect as a treatment for haemosporidican infections in cattle.

----

There's more if you do a search on PubMed...

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