Topic: Germanium 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) Have you heard of?
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>>Ge-132 Improves Immunity Following Surgery: The effect of 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) as an interferon inducer on post-surgical immunosuppression was evaluated from the immuno-logical response augmented in canine neutrophils, macrophages, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, with a control group. Those in the Ge-132-administered froup (Ge-132 group) were enhanced for a long time after surgery. These results suggest that Ge-132 pre-treatment may be efficacious and useful in preventing the multifaceeted clinical symptoms induced by post-operative immunosuppression in these test animals. Source: Journal of Vetinary Medical Science, 1993 Oct, 55(5):795-9 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 4
>>Ge-132 Shown to be Safe: During 28 days and six months, test animals received 1mg/kg/day of Ge-132. No particular toxic symptoms, no behavior trouble, except a small decrease of body weight in male animals, at the end of the six-month experiment, were observed. Germanium urinary excretion was constant and linked to the received dose. Six months later, no preferential accumulation in organs was observed. Source: Journal de Toxicologie Clinique et Experimentale, 1991 Dec, 11(7-8):421-36 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 14
>>Organic germanium was correlated with lowered blood pressure in test animals. Similar results were also reported at the Proceedings of the Japan Cancer Association, 38th Annual Meeting, Tokyo, Japan, 1979, p.112 Source: The Clinical Report (Kiso to Rinsho, in Japanese) 7 (1978) | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 17
>>Organic germanium restores the normal function of T cells, B lymphocytes, antibody-dependent cell toxicity, natural killer cell activity, and numbers of antibody-forming cells. Studies indicate that this compound has unique physiological activities without any significant toxic effects. Organic germanium has the ability to modulate alterations in the immune response. Source: The Journal of Interferon Research 4 (1984):223-233 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 17
>>Organic germanium is considered to restore the impaired immunoresponses in aged mice. Source: International Archives of Allergy 63 (1980):338-339 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 17
>>Germanium works as a potent antimutagen induced in Salmonella. Antimutagenic effects were noted in bacteria. Source: Mutation Research 125 (1984):145-151 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 17
>>Organic germanium protects against bone-mass decrease in osteoporosis. Source: Asai Germanium Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan, 1984 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 17
>>Positive effects of oral administration of organic germanium are mediated by the inducement of interferon. Source: Microbiology and Immunology 29, 1985:65-74 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 17
>>Germanium compounds work as a significant interferon-inducing agent. Source: TProceedings of the Japan Cancer Association II, annual meeting, 1979, p. 193 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 18
>>Eye manifestations are closely related with systemic diseases. Decrease in retinal blood pressure was observed with administration of organic germanium. (This was the first report of the use of organic germanium in the field of ophthalmology.) It is also effective in the treatment and prevention of essential hypertension and diabetes by effecting a normalization of the body state. Source: Tokyo Electric Hospital of Ophthalmology, Dr. Akira Ishikawa | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 18
>>When administered to test animals with normal blood pressure, the use of organic germanium shows no change. When given to test animals with high blood pressure, the animals returned to normal within 7 to 10 days. The compound has lasting effects for a considerably long period after it is discontinued. This is typical of adaptogenic substances. Source: Japan Experimental Medical Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 18
>>Organic germanium has been shown to enhance morphine analgesia in both oral administration and injection. It appears to act by increasing the activity of morphine at the receptor sites, and by releasing self-made endorphins (the morphine-like substances manufactured by humans) Source: Journal of Pharmacological Dynamics 6 (1983):814-820 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 18
>>Organic germanium demonstrated antitumor activity. Source: Cancer and Chemotherapy 6, in Japanese (1968):79-83 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 18
>>A remarkable prolongation in life span is observed after oral administration of organic germanium. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 12, December 1985:2345-51 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 18
>>Organic germanium administered to test animals with tumors resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth. Source: Anticancer Research 6, March-April 1986:177-82 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 19
>>Organic germanium-treated test animals showed an inhibitory effect against certain tumors in such a way that suggests that the effect is the result of macrophage activity. (Macrophages are part of the immune system. They attack the enemy.) Source: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 12 November 1985: 2122-8 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 19
>>Test animals were inoculated with carcinoma or leukemia cells, and then treated orally with organic germanium. The study demonstrated that the effect of the organic germanium works through the body's defense mechanisms (including macrophages and/or T-cells) rather than attacking the cancer itself. Source: Anticancer Research 5, Sept-Oct 1985:479-83 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 19
>>This study suggests that organic germanium is useful for antitumor combination immunochemotherapy. The results are an inhibition of tumor growth, enhanced anti-metastatic effect, prolonged survival time, and recovery of lost body weight caused by chemotherapy. Source: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 13, Aug. 1986:2588-93 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 19
>>The antitumor action of organic germanium appears to be related to its interferon-inducing activity. Source: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 146, May 1985:97 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 19
>>This study suggests that organic germanium is useful for antitumor combination immunochemotherapy. The results are an inhibition of tumor growth, enhanced anti-metastatic effect, prolonged survival time, and recovery of lost body weight caused by chemotherapy. Source: Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 13, Aug. 1986:2588-93. | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 19
>>Ge-132 May be Antimutagenic: Research studies suggest that various nutritional factors such as the antioxidant vitamins and selenium are very promising as potential anticarcinogenic agents. Moreover, some evidence exists showing germanium, at specific levels, may possess antimutagenic potential. Source: Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis 46202. Mutation Research 1995 Aug, 335 (1):21-6 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 21
>>Ge-132 Delays Cataract Progression: Ge-132 has been shown to be effective in preventing a process called "glycation", which results in lens opacification, or the development of cataracts. By preventing glycation, cataract progression can be delayed. Source: Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, MI Experimental Eye Research, August 1995 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 21
>>Germanium Effective Against Tumors: The earliest reports on the therapeutic use of metals or metal-containing compounds in cancer and leukemia date from the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. The were forgotten until the 1960s, when the antitumor activity of inorganic complexes were discovered. Numerous metal compoounds, including germanium, have now been shown to be effective against tumors in man and experimental tumors in animals. Source: JEuropean Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1994, 47(1):1-16 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 33
>>Ge-132 Provides Relief for Chronic Fatigue: Ge-132 has been found to provide relief from the debilitating symptoms of the Chronic Epstein-Barr Virus Syndrome, an affliction that may be affecting millions of Americans. Source: "Use of Organic Germanium in Chronic Epstein-Barr Virus Syndrome", Juornal of Orthomolecular Medicine 1989. | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 38
>>Ge-132 Protects Cells From Injury: The effect of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) on injured cells of test animals was tudied. When the cells were pretreated before injury, the cells were protected. All the effects of Ge-132 were dose-related. The results indicate that Ge-132 may improve the metabolism of certain cells and protect them from induced injury. Source: Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, 1992, 27(7):481-5 | GERMANIUM A NEW APPROACH TO IMMUNITY by Betty Kamen, Ph.D.: page 39
Carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132), an organo-germanium complex, has been used successfully as a chemotherapeutic agent in the fight against cancer. It was found that cancer formation is aided by a suppressed immune system and the antitumour activity of Ge-132 is a result of its immuno-potentiating capabilities, which allow the body to destroy cancerous cells. Ge-132 has been shown to stimulate the production of T cells and augment Natural Killer (NK) activity in the body.
Germanium sesquioxides are formed by the reaction of trichlorogermane and an a, ß unsaturated compound. The germanium adds onto the unsaturated compound with the loss of a trichloro moiety.
This project represents a collaboration between WIT and LIT and is being carried out with the following aims:
* Synthesis and characterisation of Ge-132 * Synthesis and characterisation of novel germanium sesquioxides containing amine, amide and nitrile functional groups * Synthesis and characterisation of the corresponding germanium sesquisulfides * Detailed characterization of the complexes and an assessment of their potency and toxicity * Isolation, purification and characterisation of naturally occurring germanium sesquioxides from plants and herbal remedies * Comparison of the naturally isolated compounds with the novel synthesized complexes.
The addition of amine, amide and nitrile groups to the germanium sesquioxides is being done in order to investigate potential enhancement of anti-tumour activity caused by nitrogen containing functional groups. Nitrogen has a lone pair of electrons that has differing reactivities depending on localisation or delocalisation. Amines and nitrile groups have the lone pair of electrons localised on the nitrogen, making it available for protonation. Amides, on the other hand, have a delocalised lone pair of electrons, making them more stable and less reactive. Such reactivity can be monitored by changes in the pKa values of the compounds.
The second stage of the project will involve the isolation of germanium sesquioxides from herbal/natural remedies such as ginseng and bamboo. The Chinese herbalists have used ginseng and bamboo to treat illnesses that are caused by deficient immune systems, such as cancer. By extracting the germanium sesquioxides and characterizing them, a comparison will be made between natural and synthetic compounds with a view to systematic investigation of the properties which affect anti-tumour activity in these complexes. It is hoped through this study to identify other plants/vegetables, containing natural germanium sesquioxides, that possess similar anti-tumour traits.
This important trace mineral was recently discovered and researched by a Japanese scientist, Kazuhiko Asai. He found that an intake of 100300 milligrams of germanium a day improved many illnesses including then mastoid arthritis, food allergies, elevated cholesterol, candidiasis, chronic viral infections, cancer, and AIDS. Germanium is also a fast-acting pain killer. Germanium works by attaching itself to molecules of oxygen which are carried into the body to improve celhllar oxygenation. The body needs oxygen to keep the immune system functioning properly as oxygen helps rid the body of toxins and poisons.
Dr. Asai believes all diseases are caused by an insufficient oxygen supply to the area of the body where it is needed. Researchers have shown that organic germanium is an effective way to increase tissue oxygenahon because it acts as a carrier in the same way as hemoglobin. Ge-132 is expensive because the amount found in plants is so minute, and a large number of plants are needed to obtain a small amount of this mineral.
At present there is only one factory in Japan that is producing germanium. For more information on germanium (Ge-132), contact: Global Marketing, 435 Brannon Street, San Francisco, CA 94107; (415) 459-8524. Sources The following foods contain germanium: aloe vera, comfrey, garlic, ginseng, shiitake mushrooms, onions, and the herb suma. Warnings No side effects have been found to date.
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Dietary Benefit Germanium sesquioxide helps support the body's natural immune defenses [1,2,3,13]. Germanium helps maintain the body's natural production of gamma interferon and natural killer cells [2,4,12]. Studies indicate that Germanium exhibits antioxidant potential [5-7].
Dosage Depending on the targeted benefit, reported therapeutic dosages range from 100 mg to 7 grams daily [2,8,9]. Reportedly, oral administration appears to provide the best protection 
Product Overview The synthesis of germanium sesquioxide was first published by Mironov, a Russian scientist, in 1967 . Japanese scientists reported the same compound in respected literature seven years later . However, Asai Institute in Japan was the first to capitalize on the biological activity by marketing it as a true organic germanium compound. For this reason, Asai is often mistakenly attributed with having discovered germanium sesquioxide.
Applications include immune support and general health and wellness. Gross contamination in early Asian material led to import restrictions that prevent this compound from legally entering the U.S., but not from being sold. Designed Nutritional Products is your only domestic source.
Stability Germanium sesquioxide is light and temperature stable. No degradation has ever been reported in liquid or solid form.
Regulatory Status Germanium sesquioxide is a dietary supplement under provisions of U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA).
Classification Germanium sesquioxide CAS Registry Numbers [12758-40-6] and [27031-31-8]
Warning No studies exist demonstrating any toxicity associated with reasonable dosages of pure Germanium sesquioxide. However, inorganic forms such as germanium dioxide or germanium-lactate-citrate may cause acute renal failure.
References 1. K. Asai et al., 1974 U.S. .Patent 3, 793, 455. 2. N. Kumano, et al., 1985 Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 146, 94-104. 3. Shoji Y., et al., 1985 Int. J. Immunother. 1: 215. 4. Ishida N. et al., 1984 U.S. Patent 4, 473, 581. 5. Masaki Y, et al., 1989 Transplanatation Proceedings 21:1250-1251. 6. Wakabayashi Y. Biosci. 2001 Biotechnol Biochem 65(8):1893-1896. 7. Yang MK, Kim YG. 1999 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health ;12(58):289-297. 8. Y. Ishiwata, et al., 1990 Arcnein Forsch Drug Res. 40 (II), Nr. 8, 896-899. 9. Mainwaring MG, et al. Chest 2000;117:591-593. 10. Suzuki F., et al., 1986 Chemotherapy, Tokyo 34:448. 11. V.F. Mironov, et al., 1967 Zh. Obshch. Khim. 37 (4), 962, (911-912 in English trans). 12. G. Suzuki, et al., 1984 J. Interferon Research 4, 223-33. 13. Jang J.J. et al., 1991 Carcinogenesis 12: no4, 691-695
* Organic germanium: The term ``Organic'' is used to describe the presence of a germanium carbon bond and differentiate between dangerous ``inorganic'' forms lacking this feature.
-------------------- Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Remember Iam not a Doctor Just someone struggling like you with Tick Borne Diseases.