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» LymeNet Flash » Questions and Discussion » Medical Questions » (What?) Edelman: "four out of five ticks are not infected."

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Author Topic: (What?) Edelman: "four out of five ticks are not infected."
CaliforniaLyme
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Expert advice
Lyme disease
Originally published June 7, 2007
Dr. Robert Edelman, a University of Maryland pediatrician and infectious disease specialist who directs the Traveler's Health Clinic at University of Maryland Medical Center

Although more than 30,000 people in the U.S. are infected with Lyme disease each year, Dr. Robert Edelman says most infections can be avoided or, if not, then treated. "Even [with] a tick that has been feeding on you for one day, your chance of getting Lyme disease is remote, because it takes two to three days of feeding to infect people," he says. "Besides, four out of five ticks are not infected."




Some ticks are difficult to see. When I'm checking my body, what areas should I pay closest attention to?

There are three stages of ticks. The larvae tick is when it first emerges from the egg and is small (about 1 millimeter). It's not the one that transmits Lyme disease. It typically attaches to a field mouse. When the ticks drop off, they've reached the next stage: nymphs. The nymphs cause 90 percent of the disease. They lay in wait for the human or dog and crawl onto clothing until they can find a break between the clothing and skin. They can attach anywhere on the body, but favorite places are the back of the knee, thigh, groin, armpit, shoulder, abdomen and back.

Say I'm outside and notice a tick on my knee and pull it off right away. Do I still need to worry about Lyme disease?

No. It's how quickly can you identify the tick and how quickly you get it off. If the tick appears to have been sucking your blood -- you can tell because the tick is swollen -- it's more of a concern. There's no Lyme disease you can catch from a tick attached for less than 24 to 36 hours.

You hear a lot about the bull's-eye rash, but other early symptoms of Lyme disease can be easy to overlook. How is it diagnosed?

The distinctive rash is the only way to diagnose Lyme disease other than a blood test. The painless, pink, red or purple rash can last from seven days to four weeks. Over 90 percent of people get a rash. At some point it becomes like a viral illness: You get headache, fatigue, muscle aches. A blood test, if it's positive, is helpful. But if it's negative, it's not helpful. It may take weeks after infection for a test to show positive. If you see a rash, don't wait a week to see if it goes away. Why? The longer you wait, it allows the bacteria to spread to other organs and invade the bloodstream.

What is the treatment?

One of three different oral antibiotics: doxycycline, amoxicillin, cefuroxime. The drugs will kill the bacteria in 97 percent of people who are infected. Take the right drug, with the right dose in the right period of time, and patients will be cured. There was a vaccine for humans, but they didn't sell enough doses to make it worthwhile.

There's widespread debate about chronic Lyme disease. Are there some symptoms that linger after treatment?

Yes, but we don't know if it's due to the Lyme disease or something else. Less than 10 percent of patients with acute Lyme disease do not respond to antibiotics and have symptoms that may last for months: ... headaches, sleep disorders, depression, memory issues. It's a mystery right now.

What's your best advice on prevention?

* Use DEET repellent on the skin when you go outside.

* Spray clothing with Permethrin. It will kill ticks and mosquitoes. It impregnates the fibers and will stay for several washings. It won't hurt humans.

* Tuck your shirt and socks in. Remember, ticks look for a break between clothing and skin.

* Wear light-colored clothing. Don't wear dark clothes because you may not see the nymphal tick, which is a dark flesh color.

* Do a tick search daily if exposed to ticks. Check folds of skin closely. A tick that has attached will not transmit the disease for 24 to 36 hours.

* Control deer population. The adult ticks attach to deer where they feed and mate.


[Michelle Deal-Zimmerman]

--------------------
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seibertneurolyme
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Since when do 90% of people get a rash?

I don't think so!!!

Bea Seibert

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treepatrol
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quote:
Originally posted by CaliforniaLyme:
Expert advice
Lyme disease
Originally published June 7, 2007
Dr. Robert Edelman, "Even [with] a tick that has been feeding on you for one day, your chance of getting Lyme disease is remote, because it takes two to three days of feeding to infect people," he says. "Besides, four out of five ticks are not infected."




There's no Lyme disease you can catch from a tick attached for less than 24 to 36 hours.

You hear a lot about the bull's-eye rash, but other early symptoms of Lyme disease can be easy to overlook. How is it diagnosed?

Over 90 percent of people get a rash.

At some point it becomes like a viral illness: What is the treatment?

One of three different oral antibiotics: doxycycline, amoxicillin, cefuroxime. The drugs will kill the bacteria in 97 percent of people who are infected. Take the right drug, with the right dose in the right period of time, and patients will be cured.


There was a vaccine for humans, but they didn't sell enough doses to make it worthwhile.

There's widespread debate about chronic Lyme disease. Are there some symptoms that linger after treatment?

Yes, but we don't know if it's due to the Lyme disease or something else. Less than 10 percent of patients with acute Lyme disease do not respond to antibiotics and have symptoms that may last for months:




What's your best advice on prevention?

* Use DEET repellent on the skin when you go outside.

* Spray clothing with Permethrin. It will kill ticks and mosquitoes. It impregnates the fibers and will stay for several washings. It won't hurt humans.


* Do a tick search daily if exposed to ticks. Check folds of skin closely. A tick that has attached will not transmit the disease for 24 to 36 hours.



1. Dr. Robert Edelman, "Even [with] a tick that has been feeding on you for one day, your chance of getting Lyme disease is remote, because it takes two to three days of feeding to infect people," he says. "Besides, four out of five ticks are not infected." Bull

2. There's no Lyme disease you can catch from a tick attached for less than 24 to 36 hours.Bull

3. Over 90 percent of people get a rash.Bull


4. At some point it becomes like a viral illness: What is the treatment? Interesting suppose they no something we suspected?

5. antibiotics: doxycycline, amoxicillin, cefuroxime. The drugs will kill the bacteria in 97 percent of people who are infected.97% yeah right

6. There was a vaccine for humans, but they didn't sell enough doses to make it worthwhile. worthwhile was the {{only word}} in that sentence that was the truth, 'bad vaccine OSPA my butt

7. There's widespread debate about chronic Lyme disease.true


Are there some symptoms that linger after treatment?
8. Yes, but we don't know if it's due to the Lyme disease or something else. duh

9. Less than 10 percent of patients with acute Lyme disease do not respond to antibiotics and have symptoms that may last for months:10% my butt!! months years with pain Butt at least its mostly herx's


10. What's your best advice on prevention?

* Use DEET repellent on the skin when you go outside.deet in my opinion only works on mosquitoes effectively

11. * Spray clothing with Permethrin. It will kill ticks and mosquitoes. It impregnates the fibers and will stay for several washings. It won't hurt humans.It will hurt humans if you get it on your skin before it dry's clothing only


12. * Do a tick search daily if exposed to ticks. Check folds of skin closely. A tick that has attached will not transmit the disease for 24 to 36 hours.In my opinion it takes a lot less time than 24hrs to become infected say as soon as tick has spit saliva onto skin numbing then breaks the skin surface with its barbed harpoon called hypostome which saw's into you at the same time {cementing & numbing & immune regulating anticlotting} its mouth to you and in the saliva are all the little {{{un-noticed coccoid forms of spirochete's}} which ya all no they are looking for spirochetes.


I feel like the little dutch boy running out of fingers trying to plug all the holes in Infectious Diseases Society of America anti lyme propaganda geeeez

Ticks mouth  -
[bonk]

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Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
Remember Iam not a Doctor Just someone struggling like you with Tick Borne Diseases.

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kelmo
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That's disgusting.

Hey...did the ever think that mosquitoes might be involved?!! We have West Nile running rampant out here.

We believe we were infected by mosquitoes either here or in Oklahoma.

My daughter had repeated lice infestations (don't EVEN get me started on the little girl who was allowed back in school without treatment) in the first grade. We must've bought seven kits.

Lice can be carriers, too!

There is an untapped vector pool out there.

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luvs2ride
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There's no Lyme disease you can catch from a tick attached for less than 24 to 36 hours.

Oh really? What is the tick doing the first 23 to 35 hrs? Saying grace over his meal? A snake can infect you in seconds. Why not the tick?

The DOG TICK I just found mother's day weekend was on me less than 24 hrs. I believe I picked it up the evening before and we pulled it from my temple at 3:30pm the next day. By 12 noon on the next day, I was sick. By Monday (2 days after finding tick) I was extremely sick. Guess that was my imagination or it is just coincidence.

Either way, that tick and another one I plucked off (this one had not bit me) are both at the lab as I type getting identified. I will report back with the results.

Luvs

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When the Power of Love overcomes the Love of Power, there will be Peace.

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northstar
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Luvs said:
Oh really? What is the tick doing the first 23 to 35 hrs? Saying grace over his meal?


[Big Grin] [Big Grin] [Big Grin] too too funny!


Once I ran across a curve/ graph of lyme infection vs. time from 0-36 hours. It was an accelerating rate of infection, with 24-36 hours showing the sharpest increase.

The first problem is that the graph did not have data for the first 24 hours, and thus showed negative recordings. However, if one had a larger sample, or data had been presented, I am sure there would be evidence or incidences to show it did happen, albeit at a lower rate.

So, they play the probability game. Ignore "outliers" as if they did not exist.

Then present conclusions as pure truth, i.e. "never".

Then MD's see this as "truth".

I am continually amazed at the acceptance, and lack of critical thinking, of members of the medical community.
Those who speak to the public forum are especially guilty of glossing over data, as if the public does not need to know about probability and variability.

And unfortunately, medical professionals will run across articles such as this, and accept them unquestioningly.

Northstar

[ 07. June 2007, 02:49 PM: Message edited by: northstar ]

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Melanie Reber
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Disseminated Lyme disease after short-duration tick bite
Michael A. Patmas, MD, FACP and Carolina Remorca, MD. JSTD 1994; 1:77-78.

Lyme disease, an Ixodes tick-borne spirochetal infection, has been the subject of much controversy. One problematic area has been the prophylactic treatment of deer-tick bites in endemic areas. Some have argued against routine antimicrobial prophylaxis based upon the belief that transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi is unlikely before 24-48 hours of tick attachment. Others have suggested that it is cost effective to administer prophylactic antibiotics against Lyme disease when embedded deer-tick bites occur in endemic areas.

Herein, a case of disseminated Lyme disease after only 6 hours of tick attachment is presented. The current recommendation against treatment of short-duration tick bites may need reconsideration, particularly in hyperendemic areas.

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map1131
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This is such ignorance. Oh my, I'm sorry that someone from Maryland might actually be a patient of this so called physican. A child no less???

Pam

--------------------
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Areneli
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People,

Please put your comment right under this BAD article rather than here. There is a chance that somebody from general public is going to read it.

We Lymies know the Bull... already.

This link will take you to the right place you can post your comment.

Direct link

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Geneal
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Okay, I posted a quick response...

Maybe someone will read these responses and really get educated.

Hugs,

Geneal

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elle108
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Just posted a response using the above link. I hope people read the responses and get more educated on Lyme disease.

Elle

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Tincup
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The vaccine man! If I were anywhere near where his studies were taking place... I would RUN, not walk to the nearest exit!



Vaccine. 1999 Feb 26;17(7-8):904-14.

Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant Bacille Calmette-Gurin (rBCG) expressing Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) lipoprotein in adult volunteers: a candidate Lyme disease vaccine.


Edelman R, Palmer K, Russ KG, Secrest HP, Becker JA, Bodison SA, Perry JG, Sills AR, Barbour AG, Luke CJ, Hanson MS, Stover CK, Burlein JE, Bansal GP, Connor EM, Koenig S.

Department of Medicine and Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA.
[email protected]

This phase I clinical trial was designed to determine the feasibility of using rBCG as a live bacterial vaccine vector for the outer surface protein A (OspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi and as model for other vaccines based on a rBCG vector.

To construct the vaccine, a signal peptide derived from a mycobacterial lipoprotein was used to direct the export, and membrane-associated surface expression, of OspA in a standard strain of BCG (Connaught).

The rBCG OspA vaccine was safe and immunogenic in several animal species, and protective in a mouse model of Lyme borreliosis.

An intradermal injection (0.1 ml) of rBCG OspA was administered to 24 healthy adult volunteers sequentially at one of four dose levels, ranging from 2.0 x 10(4) CFU to 2 x 10(7) CFU, using a dose-escalation design.

All volunteers were initially PPD-skin test and OspA antibody negative, and they were monitored for 2 years after immunization.

Three volunteers had mild flu-like reactions 1-2 days after vaccination. Local ulceration and drainage at the site of injection, which occurred in 50% and 83% of volunteers in the two highest dose groups, persisted for 1-70 days before the ulcers healed.

Most of the drainage samples yielded rBCG colonies that contained the OspA plasmid.

Thirteen of 24 vaccinees, principally in the two highest dose groups, converted their PPD skin tests from negative to positive.

None of the 24 volunteers developed OspA antibody.

In conclusion, the current rBCG vaccine construct, the first such construct tested in humans, had a safety profile comparable to that of licensed BCG, but it did not elicit primary humoral responses to the vectored antigen.
PMID: 10067697 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


1: J Infect Dis. 1997 Apr;175(4):915-20. Links
Comment in:
J Infect Dis. 1998 Jun;177(6):1776-7.

Clinical manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum malaria experimentally induced by mosquito challenge.

Church LW, Le TP, Bryan JP, Gordon DM, Edelman R, Fries L, Davis JR, Herrington DA, Clyde DF, Shmuklarsky MJ, Schneider I, McGovern TW, Chulay JD, Ballou WR, Hoffman SL.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

To determine the characteristics of clinical illness accompanying Plasmodium falciparum infection induced by controlled exposure to infected mosquitoes, records of 118 volunteers participating in studies conducted between 1985 and 1992 were reviewed.

One hundred fourteen volunteers (97%) reported at least one symptom attributable to malaria, with fatigue, myalgias or arthralgias, headache, and chills most commonly reported. The median duration of symptoms was 3 days.

Fever was recorded in 61% of volunteers; 4 volunteers had temperatures >40 degrees C. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were present in 9% and 12% of volunteers, respectively. Despite counts as low as 658/microL (neutrophils) or 73,000/microL (platelets), no secondary infectious or hemorrhagic complications occurred.

In all cases, volunteers recovered completely and laboratory values returned to baseline after specific antimalarial therapy. Recrudescence did not occur in any volunteer. In this model, mosquito inoculation of P. falciparum is a reliable, safe, and well-tolerated method of experimental challenge.

PMID: 9086149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Tincup
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Well looky here...

SOMEONE thought Lyme was so HORRIBLE they just had to tell the world so they could help make a vaccine!!!!

People are clamouring!!!! They WANT a vaccine!!! It is a world wide threat!

OH NO!!! Save us all!!!

[tsk]

What a HUGE flip flop we have here. From HORRIBLE to no big deal! And Mr. Innocent brushed off the reason why the vaccine was no longer available. HE KNEW it was garbage!!!

[toilet]

But that is just my opinion....


: Vaccine. 1991 Aug;9(8):531-2.Links
Perspective on the development of vaccines against Lyme disease.

Edelman R.

Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201.

Lyme disease, the multisystem illness caused by the tick-borne spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, has emerged as a threat to public health worldwide.

It is a particularly vexing problem in the United States where it is growing in range and intensity.

In fact, in some hyperendemic regions of New York and New England, Lyme disease is now such a threat that it interferes with all sorts of outdoor activities, and has even led to depreciation of real estate values.

Family dogs in these areas seem to have been particularly hard hit by a near epidemic of lameness caused by Lyme arthritis.

Persons at high risk for infection, such as outdoor workers, campers and hikers, suburbanites with lawns to cut, and pregnant women exposed to potentially infected Ixodes ticks, are clamouring for some means of protection beyond simple behaviour modification and tick avoidance which are known not always to work.

Hence, the interest in human and veterinary vaccines against Lyme disease is growing.

PMID: 1771965 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Tincup
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How did someone who knew a good deal about Lyme simply forget it all before doing this latest article?

OOPS! Maybe he has Lyme disease? Ya think?

[cussing]


Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987 Jul;37(1):180-7. Links
Lyme disease ecology in Wisconsin: distribution and host preferences of Ixodes dammini, and prevalence of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals.

Godsey MS, Amundson TE, Burgess EC, Schell W, Davis JP, Kaslow R, Edelman R.

Lyme disease recently has been recognized in Wisconsin.

Trapping studies were conducted at four geographically separate and ecologically distinct regions in Wisconsin to elucidate the distribution and host preferences of Ixodes dammini on small and medium sized mammals, and the occurrence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in these wild mammals.

Peak I. dammini larval activity occurred from June-September. Nymphs were most active from May-August. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were important hosts for immature ticks.

Mean numbers of I. dammini per mouse were highest in regions of high prevalence of Lyme disease.

Antibody to B. burgdorferi was detected in sera of 60/371 (16%) white-footed mice, 5/104 (5%) chipmunks, 3/5 (60%) gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), 0/8 raccoons (procyon lotor), and 0/12 opossum (Didelphis virginiana); antibody prevalence correlated positively with I. dammini occurrence, and seropositive animals were not detected in areas where I. dammini were not found.

Two of 15 recaptured P. leucopus had greater than or equal to 4-fold changes in antibody titer. B. burgdorferi was cultured from blood of a P. leucopus captured in west-central Wisconsin, and was observed by direct immunofluorescence in 9/23 (39%) I. dammini nymphs.

In Wisconsin, I. dammini has increased in numbers and has significantly expanded its range since its first recognition in 1968.

PMID: 3605501 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Tincup
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I just said a bad word when I read this. It is so unbelievable I think I will post it by itself.

Read carefully!!!


Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986 Mar;35(2):355-9. Links
Experimental inoculation of Peromyscus spp. with Borrelia burgdorferi: evidence of contact transmission.

Burgess EC, Amundson TE, Davis JP, Kaslow RA, Edelman R.

In order to determine if Peromyscus spp. could become infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) by direct inoculation and to determine the duration of spirochetemia, 4 P. leucopus and 5 P. maniculatus were inoculated by the intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes with an isolate of B. burgdorferi obtained from the blood of a trapped wild P. leucopus from Camp McCoy, Wisconsin.

All of the mice developed antibodies to B. burgdorferi which reached a peak indirect immunofluorescent (IFA) geometric mean antibody titer of 10 log2 21 days post-inoculation. B burgdorferi was recovered from the blood of 1 P. maniculatus 21 days post-inoculation.

One uninfected Peromyscus of each species was housed in the same cage with the infected Peromyscus as a contact control. Both of the contact controls developed IFA B. burgdorferi antibodies by day 14, indicating contact infection.

To determine if B. burgdorferi was being transmitted by direct contact, 5 uninfected P. leucopus and 5 uninfected P. maniculatus were caged with 3 B. burgdorferi infected P. leucopus and 3 infected P. maniculatus, respectively.

Each of these contact-exposed P. leucopus and P. maniculatus developed antibodies to B. burgdorferi, and B. burgdorferi was isolated from the blood of 1 contact-exposed P. maniculatus 42 days post-initial contact.

These findings show that B. burgdorferi can be transmitted by direct contact without an arthropod vector.

PMID: 3513648 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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www.MarylandLyme.org
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Tincup
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Hope you all are doing well.

Told ya I'd stop in here and there. I miss you!!! But I have been busy.

I just completed a 22 page document that carefully reviews the opinions expressed in this article.

I told them how it is suppose to read.

And I backed it all up with LOTS of nice medical abstracts... and facts and figures. Most of them came directly from the CDC, IDSA, and Hopkins... so they can't argue it at all.

It took most of the day to do it.. and night too.. but it should be interesting reading for a few hundred folks I am sending it to.

I think this fellow is going to be the talk of the town pretty soon... if I'm not mistaken.

And I am pretty sure ALL those folks who get a copy are going to LOVE it!

NOT!

[Big Grin]

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bettyg
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areneli, thanks for posting direct link; i used it and saw elle did too! my comments...

While reading the above article, I found many errors in the comments made!

I've had CHRONIC LYME since Jan. 1970 for 37 years; 34 MISDIAGNOSED by 40-50 MDS/specialists. It was a tick OFF a live Christmas tree that bite me! We had no pets, and no gardening in sub-zero Iowa at Christmas time!

How can a tick be in/on LIVE trees? It's the lyme or co-infections infested deer, white-footed mouse, birds, squirrels, etc. that have brushed up against or climbed up the trees. The ticks jump off, and wait for a HOST/PERSON to latch onto.

I NEVER saw the tick; NEVER had a bulls-eye, and ONLY 40-50% get a bulls-eye; not 90% Where do you get your statistics?

If you are LUCKY enough to get the bulls-eye rash, get to a LYME LITERATE MD pronto! You need to get doxycycline antibiotic in you for long enough and that is NOT what I read elsewhere. We chronic lyme PATIENTS recommend 3-4 months of doxy, 400 mg twice a day so you can be CURED, and not end up like many of us having chronic lyme for DECADES. Many were given the MINIMUM and were NOT cured; they joined us instead with chronic lyme!

Majority of us have been misdiagnosed by the 300 OTHER illnesses mimicking lyme!: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, MS, ALS, Parkinson's, Bell's palsy, mental illnesses...

Deet; remember children's % are to be LESS than adults! Use masking tape circling around the areas mentioned above to prevent ticks from going to moist areas that they love! Wear a hat covering your scalp, and lightweight gloves over light-colored long-sleeved shirt plus a scarf around the neck!

A western blot igm and igg blood test needs to be drawn early in the week and sent to 1 of these 3 LYME DIAGNOSTIC LABS IN USA who test all protein bands, and they do have web sites to learn more:

1. Igenex, Palo Alto, Calif.
2. MD labs, New Jersey
3. Stoneybrooke lab, NYC

" The drugs will kill the bacteria in 97 percent of people who are infected. Take the right drug, with the right dose in the right period of time, and patients will be cured." I disagree with 97% killing the bacteria. Patients will be cured ONLY if they are treated PROMPTLY, with the correct antibiotic/dosage and for LONG ENOUGH, which is LONGER than the 2006 new lyme guidelines developed by IDSA, infectious drs. like this author!

Those 06 guidelines are outrageous to how they decided we CHRONIC LYME patients will NOT receive many alternative treatments that are finally giving us BACK QUALITY OF LIFE that the infectious drs. have NOT done to date!

I personally have $3800 out-of-pocket expenses for 3 LLMD visits out of state since IOWA HAS NO LLMDS plus $1,000 traveling expenses that Wellmark's State retiree/employee's classic blue program.

Their guidelines are now being used by the health insurance companies to DENY us chronic lyme patients REIMBURSEMENT to THOUSANDS of dollars a year! The IDSA did NOT include ANY of our LLMDS in the USA nor anyone else who are LYME LITERATE!

Shame on you IDSA; we chronic lyme patients only want a CHANCE to live a NORMAL life NOT in 24/7 pain having QUALITY OF LIFE with our families/loved ones! Why are you denying this? Please explain it to this farmer's daughter who was taught THE GOLDEN RULE, "DO UNTO OTHERS AS YOU WOULD HAVE THEM DO UNTO YOU!" [Wink]

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treepatrol
Honored Contributor (10K+ posts)
Member # 4117

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quote:
Originally posted by kelmo:
That's disgusting.

Hey...did the ever think that mosquitoes might be involved?!! We have West Nile running rampant out here.

We believe we were infected by mosquitoes either here or in Oklahoma.

My daughter had repeated lice infestations (don't EVEN get me started on the little girl who was allowed back in school without treatment) in the first grade. We must've bought seven kits.

Lice can be carriers, too!

There is an untapped vector pool out there.

Mosquitoes

1: Zakovska A, Capkova L, Sery O, Halouzka J, Dendis M.
Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from overwintering Culex pipiens biotype molestus
mosquitoes.
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(2):345-8.
PMID: 17199258 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Pugliese A, Beltramo T, Torre D.
Seroprevalence study of Tick-borne encephalitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dengue and
Toscana virus in Turin Province.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2007 Mar-Apr;25(2):185-8.
PMID: 16312014 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Kosik-Bogacka D, Kuzna-Grygiel W, Bukowska K.
The prevalence of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks Ixodes
ricinus and mosquitoes Aedes spp. within a selected recreational area in the city
of Szczecin.
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2004;11(1):105-8.
PMID: 15236506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Zakovska A, Nejedla P, Holikova A, Dendis M.
Positive findings of Borrelia burgdorferi in Culex (Culex) pipiens pipiens larvae
in the surrounding of Brno city determined by the PCR method.
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002;9(2):257-9.
PMID: 12498597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Parola P, Raoult D.
Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat.
Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Mar 15;32(6):897-928. Epub 2001 Mar 14. Review. Erratum in:
Clin Infect Dis 2001 Sep 1;33(5):749.
PMID: 11247714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Halouzka J, Wilske B, Stunzner D, Sanogo YO, Hubalek Z.
Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from overwintering Culex pipiens biotype molestus
mosquitoes.
Infection. 1999;27(4-5):275-7.
PMID: 10885843 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Lane RS, Moss RB, Hsu YP, Wei T, Mesirow ML, Kuo MM.
Anti-arthropod saliva antibodies among residents of a community at high risk for
Lyme disease in California.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Nov;61(5):850-9.
PMID: 10586924 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Halouzka J, Postic D, Hubalek Z.
Isolation of the spirochaete Borrelia afzelii from the mosquito Aedes vexans in
the Czech Republic.
Med Vet Entomol. 1998 Jan;12(1):103-5.
PMID: 9513946 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Adebajo AO, Axford JS, Rees DH.
Lyme disease in sub-Saharan Africa.
J Rheumatol. 1994 Mar;21(3):580. No abstract available.
PMID: 7911837 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF.
Ticks and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of Lyme disease,
Borrelia burgdorferi.
J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Aug;26(8):1482-6.
PMID: 3170711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Fleas

1: Burkot TR, Maupin GO, Schneider BS, Denatale C, Happ CM, Rutherford JS,
Zeidner NS.
Use of a sentinel host system to study the questing behavior of Ixodes
spinipalpis and its role in the transmission of Borrelia bissettii, human
granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and Babesia microti.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Oct;65(4):293-9.
PMID: 11693872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Hubalek Z, Halouzka J, Heroldova M.
Growth temperature ranges of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains.
J Med Microbiol. 1998 Oct;47(10):929-32.
PMID: 9788818 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: de Silva AM, Fikrig E.
Arthropod- and host-specific gene expression by Borrelia burgdorferi.
J Clin Invest. 1997 Feb 1;99(3):377-9. Review. No abstract available.
PMID: 9022068 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Foretz M, Postic D, Baranton G.
Phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by arbitrarily primed
PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997 Jan;47(1):11-8.
PMID: 8995796 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Lane RS, Berger DM, Casher LE, Burgdorfer W.
Experimental infection of Columbian black-tailed deer with the Lyme disease
spirochete.
J Wildl Dis. 1994 Jan;30(1):20-8.
PMID: 8151819 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Lindsay LR, Barker IK, Surgeoner GA, McEwen SA, Elliott LA, Kolar J.
Apparent incompetence of Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) and fleas
(Insecta: Siphonaptera) as vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi in an Ixodes dammini
endemic area of Ontario, Canada.
J Med Entomol. 1991 Sep;28(5):750-3.
PMID: 1941949 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA.
Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991 May;44(5):469-74.
PMID: 2063950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Durden LA, Wilson N.
Parasitic and phoretic arthropods of sylvatic and commensal white-footed mice
(Peromyscus leucopus) in central Tennessee, with notes on Lyme disease.
J Parasitol. 1991 Apr;77(2):219-23.
PMID: 2010854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Goldings EA, Jericho J.
Lyme disease.
Clin Rheum Dis. 1986 Aug;12(2):343-67. Review.
PMID: 3542350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Mites

1: Flicek BF.
Rickettsial and other tick-borne infections.
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2007 Mar;19(1):27-38. Review.
PMID: 17338947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Netusil J, Zakovska A, Horvath R, Dendis M, Janouskovcova E.
Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in mites parasitizing small rodents.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005 Fall;5(3):227-32.
PMID: 16187890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Lopatina IuV, Vasil'eva IS, Gutova VP, Ershova AS, Burakova OV, Naumov RL,
Petrova AD.
[An experimental study of the capacity of the rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti
(Hirst, 1913) to ingest, maintain and transmit Borrelia]
Med Parazitol (Mosk). 1999 Apr-Jun;(2):26-30. Russian.
PMID: 10703202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Schwan TG.
Ticks and Borrelia: model systems for investigating pathogen-arthropod
interactions.
Infect Agents Dis. 1996 Jun;5(3):167-81. Review.
PMID: 8805079 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Mather TN, Duffy DC, Campbell SR.
An unexpected result from burning vegetation to reduce Lyme disease transmission
risks.
J Med Entomol. 1993 May;30(3):642-5.
PMID: 8510127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Zhang Z.
[Geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Mudanjiang]
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 1991 Jun;12(3):154-7. Chinese.
PMID: 1863948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Durden LA, Wilson N.
Parasitic and phoretic arthropods of sylvatic and commensal white-footed mice
(Peromyscus leucopus) in central Tennessee, with notes on Lyme disease.
J Parasitol. 1991 Apr;77(2):219-23.
PMID: 2010854 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Pan LN.
[The discover of Lyme disease in Fujian Province]
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 1991 Feb;12(1):1-4. Chinese.
PMID: 1878953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Urine

Live Borrelia burgdorferi were isolated from the blood and/or urine of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) collected on Shelter Island, New York, in 1984 and 1985. Prevalence of spirochetes in urine was consistently higher than in blood or both fluids simultaneously. Spirochetes remained viable for 18-24 hours in urine.
31: Bosler EM, Schulze TL.
The prevalence and significance of Borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of feral
reservoir hosts.
Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [A]. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):40-4.
PMID: 3577491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The contact exposed dog also developed a B. burgdorferi IFA antibody titer of (7 log2) on post contact day 21 indicating contact infection. B. burgdorferi was not isolated from either of these dogs. These results indicate that, contact transmission of B. burgdorferi may occur between dogs, dogs can be subclinically infected with B. burgdorferi and have persistent infections.32: Burgess EC.
Experimental inoculation of dogs with Borrelia burgdorferi.
Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [A]. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):49-54.
PMID: 3554844 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

--------------------
Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
Remember Iam not a Doctor Just someone struggling like you with Tick Borne Diseases.

Newbie Links

Posts: 10564 | From PA Where the Creeks are Red | Registered: Jun 2003  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a Moderator
Tincup
Honored Contributor (10K+ posts)
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GRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR...

They (Baltimore Sun) KNEW about the Lyme controversy and STILL printed this stuff. Said they were VERY aware of it.

They do not wish at this time to correct anything in the article to help prevent more people from becoming infected or get properly diagnosed or treated.

They didn't think anyone could get the doctor to change his mind either... and of course it is JUST an article... so no big deal.

They were told the CDC and other places don't agree with this stuff and it didn't seem to matter to them at all.

They THINK... not sure... this doctor may treat patients. They didn't KNOW!!! You would THINK they might want to check?

The stated several times they KNEW about the controversies and then back tracked when I mentioned something about it.... REAL FAST!!! And then claimed they didn't know anything about the stuff just mentioned. Sounded like hooey to me.

IF.. and it sounded like a kid saying "yes" to the statement, "Go clean your room"... and not at all meaning it... IF they have some free time they MIGHT take a look at the documentation sent to them proving this was inaccurate information.

They were told this type of bad information could hurt or destoy people's lives and make them suffer... and could harm NEW patients. They acted like "oh well"... not THEIR concern.

They didn't seem to think they were responsible or had any responsibility for putting out information they have been told and that has been proven to be harmful... due to it being innaccurate.

Your turn! Please keep it under 200 words.. and BE NICE!!!!

[email protected]

410-332-6000


[Roll Eyes]

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bettyg
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tincup, i was nice but almost 500 words! so i won't be printed but got satisfaction typing it! [Wink]
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Tincup
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Good for you Betty G. THANKS!!!!

[Big Grin]

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